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Increased Inflammatory Response in Cytomegalovirus Seropositive Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, e96779- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with increased local inflammation in the affected brain regions, and in some studies also with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to promote a more effector-oriented phenotype in the T-cell compartment, increasing with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AD patients and non-demented (ND) controls. Using a multiplex Luminex xMAP assay targeting GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and TNF-alpha, cytokine profiles from PBMCs were analysed after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CMV pp65 peptide mix or amyloid beta (A beta) protofibrils, respectively. CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher IFN-gamma levels after anti-CD3/ CD28 and CMV pp65 but not after Ab stimulation, compared to CMV seropositive ND controls. When analysing IFN-gamma response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation on a subgroup level, CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher levels compared to both CMV seronegative AD and CMV seropositive ND subjects. Taken together, our data from patients with clinically manifest AD suggest a possible role of CMV as an inflammatory promoter in AD immunology. Further studies of AD patients at earlier stages of disease, could provide better insight into the pathophysiology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 9, no 5, e96779- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-227733DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096779ISI: 000335728900093OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-227733DiVA: diva2:730926
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Herpesvirus Infection and Immunity in Neurocognitive Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herpesvirus Infection and Immunity in Neurocognitive Disorders
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Herpesviruses have co-speciated with several vertebrate and invertebrate animals throughout the history of evolution. In the immunocompetent human host, primary infection is usually benign, whereafter the virus is brought into life-long latency. Viral reactivation can however cause severe disease in immunocompromised, and rarely also in immunocompetent, patients. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the immunologic effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infection in neurocognitive disorders.

CMV is known to promote T-cell differentiation towards a more effector-oriented phenotype, similar to what is seen in the elderly. We have addressed the frequency of CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, we have investigated whether AD patients present with a different CMV-specific immune profile, overall CD8 phenotype or inflammatory cytokine response to anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CMV pp65 and amyloid beta. Subjects with AD presented with a lower proportion of CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells compared to non-demented (ND) controls, but no differences in overall CD8 differentiation were seen. Overall, AD subjects presented with a more pro-inflammatory peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) phenotype. When PBMCs were challenged with CD3/CD28-stimulation, CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with more IFN-γ release than both CMV seronegative AD subjects and CMV seropositive ND controls.

For effective screening of humoral herpesvirus immunity, both in research and in clinical practice, efficient immunoassays are needed. We have addressed the methodology of multiplex herpesvirus immunoassays and related bioinformatics and investigated antibody levels in AD patients and ND controls. Subjects with AD presented with lower levels of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) IgG. However, there was no difference in HHV-6 DNA levels in PBMCs between the groups.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a devastating disease, where antiviral treatment has greatly decreased mortality but not eliminated the associated long-term neurocognitive morbidity. We have investigated the correlation between N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and recovery of neurocognitive functions after HSE. Approximately one quarter of all HSE cases developed NMDAR autoantibodies within 3 months after onset of disease. Antibody development was associated with an impaired neurocognitive recovery during the two year follow-up and could become an important therapy guiding factor in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 80 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1080
Alzheimer's disease, Herpes simplex encephalitis, Herpesvirus, Cytomegalovirus, CMV, HSV-1, HHV-6, CD8 T-cells, Cellular immunity, Immunosenescence, Autoimmunity, NMDA receptor
National Category
Infectious Medicine Immunology in the medical area
Research subject
Medical Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247187 (URN)978-91-554-9194-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-09, Auditorium minus, Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-03-15 Last updated: 2015-07-07

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Westman, GabrielBerglund, DavidWiden, JohanIngelsson, MartinKorsgren, OlleLannfelt, LarsSehlin, DagEriksson, Britt-Marie
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Infectious DiseasesClinical ImmunologyDepartment of Medical SciencesGeriatricsDepartment of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology
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