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Upgrading the “Berg-model” for reactive sputtering processes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
2014 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 565, 186-192 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several phenomena are neglected in the original “Berg model” in order to provide a simple model of the reactive sputtering process. There exist situations, however, where this simplified treatment limits the usefulness of the model. To partly correct for this, we introduce an upgraded version of the basic model. We abandon the simplifying assumption that compound targets are sputter eroded as molecules. Instead, the molecule is split and individual atoms will be sputter ejected. Also, the effect of ionized reactive gas atoms implanted into the target will be considered. We outline how to modify the original model to include these effects. Still, the mathematical treatment is maintained simple so that the new model may serve as an easy-to-understand tutorial of the complex mechanisms of reactive sputtering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 565, 186-192 p.
Keyword [en]
Reactive sputtering, Hysteresis, Modelling
National Category
Other Physics Topics Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229204DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.063ISI: 000341054600030OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-229204DiVA: diva2:736169
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2014-08-05 Created: 2014-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sputtering and Characterization of Complex Multi-element Coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sputtering and Characterization of Complex Multi-element Coatings
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thin film technology is of great importance in modern society and is a key technology in wide spread applications from electronics and solar cells to hard protective coatings on cutting tools and diffusion barriers in food packaging. This thesis deals with various aspects of thin film processing and the aim of the work is twofold; firstly, to obtain a fundamental understanding of the sputter deposition and the reactive sputter deposition processes, and secondly, to evaluate sputter deposition of specific material systems with low friction properties and to improve their performance.From studies of the reactive sputtering process, two new methods of eliminating the problematic and undesirable hysteresis effect were found. In the first method it was demonstrated that an increased process pressure caused a reduction and, in some cases, even elimination of the hysteresis. In the second method it was shown that sufficiently high oxide content in the target will eliminate the hysteresis.

Further studies of non-reactive magnetron sputtering of multi-element targets at different pressures resulted in huge pressure dependent compositional gradients over the chamber due to different gas phase scattering of the elements. This has been qualitatively known for a long time but the results presented here now enable a quantitative estimation of such effects. For example, by taking gas phase scattering into consideration during sputtering from a WS2 target it was possible to deposit WSx films with a sulphur content going from sub-stoichiometric to over-stoichiometric composition depending on the substrate position relative the target.

By alloying tungsten disulphide (WS2) with carbon and titanium (W-S-C-Ti) its hardness was significantly increased due to the formation of a new titanium carbide phase (TiCxSy). The best sample increased its hardness to 18 GPa (compared to 4 GPa for the corresponding W-S-C coating) while still maintaining a low friction (µ=0.02) due to the formation of easily sheared WS2 planes in the wear track. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 74 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1162
Keyword
thin film, coating, magnetron sputtering, modelling, tribofilm, tungsten disulphide
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229207 (URN)978-91-554-8997-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-26, Polhemsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , 30003
Available from: 2014-09-02 Created: 2014-08-05 Last updated: 2014-09-08

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Berg, SörenSärhammar, ErikNyberg, Tomas

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