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Influence of annealing temperature on the electrochemical and surface properties of the 5-V spinel cathode material LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 synthesized by a sol–gel technique
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2538-8104
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Akdeniz University. (Department of Material Science and Engineering)
2014 (English)In: Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, ISSN 1432-8488, E-ISSN 1433-0768, Vol. 18, no 8, 2157-2166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 was synthesized by a sol-gel technique in which tartaric acid was used as oxide precursor. The synthesized powder was annealed at five different temperatures from 600 to 1,000 A degrees C and tested as a 5-V cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The study shows that annealing at higher temperatures resulted in improved electrochemical performance, increased particle size, and a differentiated surface composition. Spinel powders synthesized at 900 A degrees C had initial discharge capacities close to 130 mAh g(-1) at C and C/2 discharge rates. Powders synthesized at 1,000 A degrees C showed capacity retention values higher than 85 % at C/2, C, and 2C rates at 25 A degrees C after 50 cycles. Annealing at 600-800 A degrees C resulted in formation of spinel particles smaller than 200 nm, while almost micron-sized particles were obtained at 900-1,000 A degrees C. Chromium deficiency was detected at the surface of the active materials annealed at low temperatures. The XPS results indicate presence of Cr6+ impurity when the annealing temperature was not high enough. The study revealed that increased annealing temperature is beneficial for both improved electrochemical performance of LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 and for avoiding formation of Cr6+ impurity on its surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 18, no 8, 2157-2166 p.
Keyword [en]
High voltage, Li–Mn–Ni spinel oxide, Li-ion battery, Cr substitution, Cathode material, Sol–gel
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229352DOI: 10.1007/s10008-014-2467-2ISI: 000339800600010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-229352DiVA: diva2:736334
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-3345
Available from: 2014-08-06 Created: 2014-08-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Younesi, RezaEdström, Kristina

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