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Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hole-Transporting Material Generated by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous and Organic Medium for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, no 30, 16591-16601 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We applied organic donor-pi-acceptor (D-pi-A) sensitizers for photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) because of their appropriate energy levels and high light absorption. The polymerized conducting polymer PEDOT was used as hole conductor in all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By combination of the D-pi-A sensitizers and the generated PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in acetonitrile, the resulting device showed an average power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Furthermore, the PEP in aqueous micellar electrolytic medium was also employed because of the ability to decrease oxidation potential of the precursor, thereby making the polymerization process easier. The latter method is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. Using as hole conductor the so-obtained PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in aqueous electrolyte, the devices exhibited impressive power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. To compare the properties of the generated polymer from bis-EDOT in these two PEP methods, electron lifetime, photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectra, and UV-vis-NIR spectra were measured. The results showed that PEDOT from organic PEP exhibits a delocalized conformation with high conductivity and a smooth and compact morphology; a rough morphology with high porosity and polymer structure of relatively shorter chains was assumed to be obtained from aqueous PEP. Therefore, better dye regeneration but faster charge recombination was observed in the device based on PEDOT from aqueous PEP of bis-EDOT. Subsequently, to extend the aqueous PEP approach in consideration of the ability to decrease the oxidation potential of the precursor, the easily available precursor EDOT was for the first time used for PEP in aqueous medium in a variant of the aforementioned procedure, and the device based on the so-obtained PEDOT shows a more than 70-fold increase in efficiency, 3.0%, over that based on the polymer generated from EDOT by PEP in organic media. It was demonstrated that aqueous micellar PEP with EDOT as monomer is an efficient strategy for generation of conducting polymer hole-transporting materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 118, no 30, 16591-16601 p.
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231291DOI: 10.1021/jp412504sISI: 000339930900037OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-231291DiVA: diva2:744522
Available from: 2014-09-08 Created: 2014-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Organic Hole Transport Materials for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Hole Transport Materials for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) and recently developed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a great attention in the scientific field of photovoltaics due to their low cost, absence of solvent, simple fabrication and promising power conversion efficiency (PCE). In these types of solar cell, the dye molecule or the perovskite can harvest the light on the basis of electron excitation. Afterwards, the electron and hole are collected at the charge transport materials.

Photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) is employed in this thesis to synthesize conducting polymer hole transport materials (HTMs) for ssDSSCs. We have for the first time developed aqueous PEP in comparison with the conventional organic PEP with acetonitrile as solvent. This water-based PEP could potentially provide a low-cost, environmental-friendly method for efficient deposition of polymer HTM for ssDSSCs. In addition, new and simple precursors have been tested with PEP method. The effects of dye molecules on the PEP were also systematically studied, and we found that (a) the bulky structure of dye is of key importance for blocking the interfacial charge recombination; and (b) the matching of the energy levels between the dye and the precursor plays a key role in determining the kinetics of the PEP process.

In PSCs, the HTM layer is crucial for efficient charge collection and its long term stability. We have studied different series of new molecular HTMs in order to understand fundamentally the influence of alkyl chains, molecular energy levels, and molecular geometry of the HTM on the photovoltaic performance. We have identified several important factors of the HTMs for efficient PSCs, including high uniformity of the HTM capping layer, perovskite-HTM energy level matching, good HTM solubility, and high conductivity. These factors affect interfacial hole injection, hole transport, and charge recombination in PSCs. By systematical optimization, a promising PCE of 19.8% has been achieved by employing a new HTM H11. We believe that this work could provide important guidance for the future development of new and efficient HTMs for PSCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 83 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1408
Keyword
photoelectrochemical polymerization, PEDOT, dye, hole transport material, small molecule, perovskite solar cell
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300802 (URN)978-91-554-9659-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-07, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-08-14 Last updated: 2016-09-22

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Zhang, JinbaoYang, LeiPark, Byung-WookHao, YanJohansson, Erik M. J.Boschloo, GerritVlachopoulos, NickHagfeldt, Anders

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