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Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
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2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 24024- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.

Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed.

Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail.

Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total.

Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies and product development of more sensorily attractive rye or whole-grain-rich bread should be younger age groups (18–30 years), families with children, and groups with lower educational levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, 24024- p.
Keyword [en]
public health, whole-grain bread, consumption context
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231967DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v58.24024ISI: 000342086600001PubMedID: 25278822OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-231967DiVA: diva2:746190
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rye bread in Sweden: Health-related and sensory qualities, consumer perceptions and consumption patterns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rye bread in Sweden: Health-related and sensory qualities, consumer perceptions and consumption patterns
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rye bread has shown potential as a health-beneficial component in the diet, especially in relation to non-communicable diseases. To have a beneficial effect in reality, however, it also needs to be available, chosen and eaten. Less research has focused on rye bread from a consumer perspective. The main aim was to investigate consumption patterns, health-related and sensory qualities and consumer perceptions of bread, more specifically commercial rye bread. In Study I, secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435, 18-80 years). In Study II, commercial rye breads (n=24) were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis; the in vitro measurement fluidity index (FI) was used to predict glycemic properties, and chemical acidity was measured. Study III was a consumer test (n=398, 18-80 years), where acceptance and perceptions of nine rye breads were investigated. Study IV was a web-based and postal sequential mixed-mode survey (n=1,134, 18-80 years) with open-ended items covering health-related perceptions of bread. Consumers with the lowest intake of whole grain and rye bread were from younger age groups, families with children and groups with lower educational levels. Health-related and sensory properties of commercial rye bread varied widely. The FI indicated more beneficial glycemic properties in half of the samples and this was associated with a chewy, dry texture and sour flavor. The younger consumer group (18-44 years) differed in their liking compared to the older group (45-80 years) and displayed a preference toward bread with less whole grain and rye, although different clusters were identified. Rye bread liking was associated with bread type consumed in childhood, food choice motives and educational level. Most (75%) knew of bread they considered healthy. Coarse, whole grain, fiber, sourdough and rye were perceived to be good for the stomach, bowel and, to have good satiation and glycemic properties. Few health claims have been authorized, making it challenging for consumers to identify bread with these properties. Front-of-package label indicating rye bread was sometimes found on breads with very little rye flour. Sensory attributes, foremost textural and flavor, e.g., sourness, correlated with beneficial FI values and could thereby help guide consumers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 97 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 138
Keyword
national dietary survey, sensory analysis, preference mapping, sourdough, whole grain, public health, health promotion
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316598 (URN)978-91-554-9847-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-28, A1:111a, Biomedical Centre (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-04-21

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Sandvik, PernillaKihlberg, IwonaMarklinder, IngelaNydahl, Margaretha

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