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Slow development as an evolutionary cost of long life
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. (Ageing Research Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5602-1933
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. (Ageing Research Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9284-3459
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
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2017 (English)In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 6, 1252-1261 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between early-life fitness and life span. While the focus traditionally has been on the fecundity-life span trade-off, there are strong reasons to expect trade-offs with growth rate and/or development time. We investigated the roles of growth rate and development time in the evolution of life span in two independent selection experiments in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. First, we found that selection under heat-shock leads to the evolution of increased life span without fecundity costs, but at the cost of slower development. Thereafter, the putative evolutionary links between development time, growth rate, fecundity, heat-shock resistance and life span were independently assessed in the second experiment by directly selecting for fast or slow development. This experiment confirmed our initial findings, since selection for slow development resulted in the evolution of long life span and increased heat-shock resistance. Because there were no consistent trade-offs with growth rate or fecundity, our results highlight the key role of development rate - differentiation of the somatic cells per unit of time - in the evolution of life span. Since development time is under strong selection in nature, reduced somatic maintenance resulting in shorter life span may be a widespread cost of rapid development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 31, no 6, 1252-1261 p.
Keyword [en]
antagonistic pleiotropy, development time, growth, life span, stress resistance, trade-off
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232066DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12840ISI: 000402642900009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-232066DiVA: diva2:746432
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 623-2012-6366EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experimental Evolution of Life-history: Testing the Evolutionary Theories of Ageing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evolution of Life-history: Testing the Evolutionary Theories of Ageing
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ageing reduces fitness, but how ageing evolves is still unclear. Evolutionary theory of ageing hinges on the fundamental principal that the force of natural selection declines with age. This principle has yielded two important predictions: 1) the evolution of faster ageing in populations under high rate of extrinsic mortality; and 2) the evolution of faster ageing in a sex that experiences higher rates of extrinsic mortality. However, an emerging new theory argues that when the extrinsic mortality is not random but instead selects on traits showing positive genetic correlation with lifespan, increased mortality should lead to the evolution of increased lifespan. Such condition-dependent mortality is also expected to increase the robustness in the population, resulting in increased deceleration of mortality in late-life. Similarly, high sex-specific mortality can result in increased sex-specific selection on traits that have positive pleiotropic effects on lifespan in the affected sex. This thesis is based on two experimental evolution studies in Caenorhabditis remanei. The first experiment was designed to disentangle the effects of the rate (high or low) and the source (random or condition-dependent) of mortality on the evolution of lifespan and ageing. Reduced lifespan evolved under high rate of random mortality, whereas high condition-dependent mortality, imposed by heat-shock, led to the evolution of increased lifespan (Paper I). However, while female reproduction increased under condition-dependent mortality, male reproduction suffered, suggesting a role for sexual antagonism in maintaining genetic variation for fitness (Paper II). Besides, long lifespan and high fecundity evolved at a cost of slow juvenile growth rate in females (Paper III). Moreover, high condition-dependent mortality led to the evolution of lower rate of intrinsic mortality in late-life (Paper IV). The second experiment showed that evolution of sexual dimorphism in lifespan is driven by the factors that cause sex-specific mortality and cannot be predicted from differences in mortality rate alone. Specifically, high condition-dependent mortality renders males less prone to ageing than females despite higher rates of male mortality (Paper V). The strength of this thesis is the reconfirmation of the earlier findings combined with support for the new theory. Rather than further complicating the matter, the inclusion of the new ideas should help explain some empirical results that are inconsistent with the classic theory, as well as provide a more comprehensive picture of ageing evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 43 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1178
Keyword
senescence, ageing, longevity, mortality, experimental evolution, Caenorhabditis remanei
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231948 (URN)978-91-554-9034-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-28, Friessalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2015-01-23

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Lind, Martin I.Chen, Hwei-yenZwoinska, Martyna K.Maklakov, Alexei A.

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