Vitamin D plays a role in a wide range of extraskeletal processes, including vascular function. Endothelial dysfunction is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, especially in older subjects. However, the relationship between vitamin D levels and indexes of endothelial vasodilation has never been fully addressed in older individuals.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D and endothelial function in a large community-based sample of older subjects.
This cross-sectional study involved 852 community-dwelling men and women aged 70 years from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), with complete data on vascular function and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. We evaluated endothelium-dependent vasodilation by an invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine, endothelium-independent vasodilation by sodium nitroprussiate, flow-mediated vasodilation, and the pulse wave analysis (reflectance index). Vitamin D levels were measured by chemiluminescence. We used multivariate regression models adjusted for body mass index (model 1) and for multiple confounders (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, smoking, sex hormones, season of blood collection, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular medications and diseases, statin usage, plasma calcium and calcium intake, PTH, physical exercise, liver and kidney function tests, albumin; model 2).
In women, but not in men, vitamin D levels were positively associated with endothelium-independent vasodilation in both model 1 (β ± SE = 1.41 ± 0.54; P = .001), and model 2 (β ± SE = 2.01 ± 0.68; P = .003).We found no significant relationship between vitamin D levels and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, flow-mediated vasodilation, and reflectance index in both sexes.
In older women, but not in men, vitamin D is positively and independently associated with EIDV.
2014. Vol. 99, no 9, 3382-3389 p.