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Benzenediacrylates as organic battery electrode materials: Na versus Li
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9292-016X
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
2014 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 72, p. 38004-38011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses investigations of a novel Na-based organic battery electrode material, disodium benzenediacrylate (Na(2)BDA) in comparison with its Li-ion homologue. Li(2)BDA has previously shown promising battery properties, such as stable cycling and good capacity retention. Na(2)BDA and Li(2)BDA are here successfully synthesized and characterized, and investigated as anode materials in prototype Na- and Li-ion battery cells. Moreover, different electrolytes are screened for the Na-battery material, and a useful operating voltage window is explored. Na(2)BDA is shown to possess a higher initial coulombic efficiency (91%) than the Li-homologue, which is uncommon for sodiated organic electrode materials. The Na-compound shows an initial capacity of 177.7 mA h g(-1), which however decreases to ca. 50 mA h g(-1) after 20-100 cycles depending on the cycling rate; a significantly lower capacity retention then that observed for Li(2)BDA. The capacity loss can primarily be explained by a decomposition mechanism of the Na(2)BDA compound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 4, no 72, p. 38004-38011
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233622DOI: 10.1039/c4ra06288dISI: 000341455200008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-233622DiVA, id: diva2:753271
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Organic Negative Electrode Materials For Li-ion and Na-ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Negative Electrode Materials For Li-ion and Na-ion Batteries
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Kph Trycksaksbolaget AB, 2015. p. 43
Keywords
organic materials, Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-243273 (URN)
Presentation
2015-02-27, Beurlingrummet, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-02-11 Created: 2015-02-06 Last updated: 2015-02-11Bibliographically approved
2. Building Sustainable Batteries: Organic electrodes based on Li- and Na-benzenediacrylate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Sustainable Batteries: Organic electrodes based on Li- and Na-benzenediacrylate
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As possible alternatives to the conventional inorganic Li- or Na-ion battery electrode materials, organic compounds have recently drawn considerable attention. However, major challenges such as poor electronic conductivity, solubility in battery electrolyte or fast capacity decay of the resulting electrochemical cells are some of the reasons that hold these compounds back from becoming commercial solutions in the energy system.

The goal of this thesis work was to investigate the background to these phenomena and find strategies for improvements. Two different compounds were studied: dilithium and disodium benzenediacrylate, in their respective cells. First, improving the performance of the dilithium compound was performed by applying different electrode fabrication strategies. A freeze-drying technique was combined with carbon coating in the liquid state, which rendered an improved electrode morphology. Moreover, when using the compound in pouch cell format instead of Swagelok® cells, a different technique was applied: calendaring. Successful results were obtained both in half-cells and in full-cells when the compound was cycled versus LiFePO4-based cathodes. Second, the sodium analogue was investigated, and while the synthesis of this compound is straightforward, the electrochemical performance in Na-ion battery cells displays an unexpected degree of complexity. The compound displays a considerably faster capacity decrease in comparison to the Li compound, and generally a poor chemical stability in the applied system. When cycled at higher currents (C-rates of C/4 or C/10, in comparison to C/40), the compound presents an capacity increase while the Li decreases, likely due to a chemical process more dependent on time than on the number of cycles for the Na compound.

The fast capacity decay in the first cycles of these types of compounds is often considered to be related to the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer formation. Its study was also performed and it was concluded that the Na compound has a thicker SEI layer in comparison to the Li counterpart, and mostly consisted of inorganic species such as the electrolyte salt and its decomposition products. Finally, a concept for a sustainable manufacturing and recycling process of a hybrid full cell is also performed with positive results.

Although the organic compounds cannot yet outperform the inorganic compounds used commercially in Li-ion batteries, important steps towards their employment in the energy system have been taken in this thesis work.    

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 65
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1658
Keywords
Organic Electrode Materials, Li-ion Batteries, Na-ion Batteries, Calendaring, Recycling Process
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347404 (URN)978-91-513-0303-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-25, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-05-04

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Mihali, Viorica AlinaRenault, StevenNyholm, LeifBrandell, Daniel

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