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Interaction of Lightning Flashes with Wireless Communication Networks: Special Attention to Narrow Bipolar Pulses
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the features of electric field signatures of narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) generated by cloud flashes are investigated and their effects on wireless communication systems are studied. A handful amount of NBPs (14.5%) have been observed to occur as part of cloud-to-ground flashes in South Malaysia. Occurrence of NBPs in Sweden has been reported for the first time in this thesis. The electric field waveform characteristics of NBPs as part of cloud-to-ground flashes were similar to isolated NBPs found in Sweden and South Malaysia and also to those isolated NBPs reported by previous studies from various geographical areas. This is a strong indication that their breakdown mechanisms are similar at any latitudes regardless of geographical areas.

A comparative study on the occurrence of NBPs and other forms of lightning flashes across various geographical areas ranging from northern regions to the tropics is presented. As the latitude decreased from Uppsala, Sweden (59.8°N) to South Malaysia (1.5°N), the percentage of NBP emissions relative to the total number of lightning flashes increased significantly from 0.13% to 12%. Occurrences of positive NBPs were more common than negative NBPs at all observed latitudes. However, as latitudes decreased, the negative NBP emissions increased significantly from 20% (Sweden) to 45% (South Malaysia). Factors involving mixed-phase region elevations and vertical extents of thundercloud tops are invoked to explain the observed results. These factors are fundamentally latitude dependent.

In this thesis, the interaction between microwave radiations emitted by cloud-to-ground and cloud flashes events and bits transmission in wireless communication networks are also presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such effects are investigated in the literature. Narrow bipolar pulses were found to be the strongest source of interference that interfered with the bits transmission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 70 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1188
Keyword [en]
Latitude, Lightning, Narrow bipolar pulse, Wireless network.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233673ISBN: 978-91-554-9067-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-233673DiVA: diva2:754343
Public defence
2014-12-01, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-10-08 Last updated: 2015-01-23
List of papers
1. Signatures of Narrow Bipolar Pulses as Part of Cloud-to-Ground Flashes in Tropical Thunderstorms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signatures of Narrow Bipolar Pulses as Part of Cloud-to-Ground Flashes in Tropical Thunderstorms
2014 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keyword
Narrow bipolar pulse; Return stroke; Tropical thunderstorm.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233624 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05
2. Narrow bipolar pulses and associated microwave radiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narrow bipolar pulses and associated microwave radiation
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212898 (URN)
Conference
Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2015-01-23
3. Electric Field Signature of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Observed in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Field Signature of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Observed in Sweden
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2014 (English)In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keyword
Electric field; Narrow bipolar pulse; Sweden.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233636 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05
4. Latitude Dependence of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitude Dependence of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Emissions
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 128, 40-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Latitude; Narrow bipolar pulse; Thunderstorm.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233638 (URN)10.1016/j.jastp.2015.03.005 (DOI)000355717500005 ()
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Similarity between the Initial Breakdown Pulses of Negative Ground Flash and Narrow Bipolar Pulses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similarity between the Initial Breakdown Pulses of Negative Ground Flash and Narrow Bipolar Pulses
2014 (English)In: 2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LIGHTNING PROTECTION (ICLP), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 810-813 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, temporal characteristics of several initial electric field pulses of preliminary breakdown process (PBP) from very close negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes are compared to close narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) to observe any similarity that may exists. Interestingly, we found that the initial PBP pulses are similar to close NBP with zero crossing time less than 5 mu s, do not preceded by any slow field change and followed by pronounce static component. As NBPs are believed to be a result of relativistic runaway electron avalanches discharge, this finding is an indication that the initial electric field pulses of PBP are perhaps the result of the same discharge mechanism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keyword
Narrow bipolar pulse; Preliminary breakdown pulse; Relativistic runaway electron avalanches.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233639 (URN)000358572100153 ()978-1-4799-3544-4 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), OCT 11-18, 2014, Tsinghua Univ, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved
6. Lightning interference in multiple antennas wireless communication systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightning interference in multiple antennas wireless communication systems
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Lightning Research, ISSN 1652-8034, Vol. 4, 155-165 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the interference of lightning flashes with multiple antennas wireless communicationsystems operating in the microwave band at 2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz. A bit error rate (BER) measurement method was usedto evaluate BER and packet error rate (PER) during 5 heavy thunderstorms on January 25 and March 17 to 20, 2011,respectively. In addition, BER measurements also were done on January 21 and March 30, 2011 under fair weather (FW)conditions providing a baseline for comparison. The Transmitter-Receiver separation was fixed at 10 meter with line-ofsight(LOS) consideration. We infer that lightning interfered with the transmitted digital pulses which resulted in a higherrecorded BER. The maximum recorded BER was 9.9·10-1 and the average recorded BER and PER were 2.07·10-2 and2.44·10-2 respectively during the thunderstorms with the average fair weather BER and PER values under the influence ofadjacent channel interference (ACI) and co-channel interference (CCI) being 1.75·10-5 and 7.35·10-6 respectively. Weconclude that multiple antennas wireless communication systems operating at the microwave frequency can besignificantly interfered by lightning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bentham open, 2012
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Atmospheric Discharges
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-190902 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-09 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2016-02-03
7. Interference from cloud-to-ground and cloud flashes in wireless communication system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference from cloud-to-ground and cloud flashes in wireless communication system
2014 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 113, 237-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, cloud-to-ground (CG) flash and intra-cloud (IC) flash events that interfere with the transmission of bits in wireless communication system operating at 2.4 GHz were analyzed. Bit error rate (BER) and consecutive lost datagram (CLD) measurement methods were used to evaluate BER and burst error from 3 tropical thunderstorms on November 27, 28, and 29 during 2012 northeastern monsoon in Malaysia. A total of 850 waveforms from the electric field change recording system were recorded and examined. Out of these, 94 waveforms of very fine structure were selected which matched perfectly with the timing information of the recorded BER. We found that both CG and IC flashes interfered significantly with the transmission of bits in wireless communication system. The severity of the interference depends mainly on two factors namely the number of pulses and the amplitude intensity of the flash. The interference level becomes worst when the number of pulses in a flash increases and the amplitude intensity of pulses in a flash intensifies. During thunderstorms, wireless communication system has experienced mostly intermittent interference due to burst error. Occasionally, in the presence of very intense NBP event, wireless communication system could experience total communication lost. In CG flash, it can be concluded that PBP is the major. source of interference that interfered with the bits transmission and caused the largest burst error. In IC flash, we found that the typical IC pulses interfered the bits transmission in the same way as PBP and mixed events in CG flash and produced comparable and in some cases higher amount of burst error. NBP has been observed to interfere the bits transmission more severely than typical IC and CG flashes and caused the most severe burst error to wireless communication system.

Keyword
Bit error rate, Cloud flash, Cloud-to-ground flash, Interference, Microwave radiation, Wireless system
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-228679 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2014.03.022 (DOI)000337554200032 ()
Available from: 2014-07-22 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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