uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A tool for prediction of risk of rehospitalization and mortality in hospitalized elderly
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
Show others and affiliations
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Importance: Older patients with multiple co-morbidities and multi-drug use are at high risk of revisits to hospital and mortality, which poses an increasing health economic burden.

Objective: To construct and internally validate a risk score, the “80+ score”, for revisits to hospital and mortality for older patients, incorporating aspects of pharmacotherapy. Our secondary aim was to compare the discriminatory ability of the score with that of three validated tools for measuring inappropriate prescribing: Screening Tool of Older Person’s Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) and Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI).

Design: Secondary use of data from a randomized controlled trial investigating effects of a comprehensive pharmacist intervention, conducted in 2005-2006.

Setting: Two acute internal medicine wards at Uppsala University hospital.

Participants: Data from 368 patients, 80 years and older, admitted to one of the study wards.

Main outcomes and measures: Time to rehospitalization or death during the year after discharge from hospital. Candidate variables were selected among a large number of clinical and drug-specific variables. After a selection process, a score for risk-estimation was constructed.  The score was internally validated, and the discriminatory ability of the new score and of STOPP, START and MAI was assessed using C-statistics.

Results: Seven variables were selected for the 80+ score. Impaired renal function, pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD or asthma]), malignant disease (past or present), living in nursing home, being prescribed an opioid or being prescribed a drug for peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with an increased risk, while being prescribed an antidepressant drug (tricyclic antidepressants not included) was linked to a lower risk of the outcome. These variables made up the components of the 80+ score. The C-statistics were 0.71 (80+ score), 0.57 (STOPP), 0.54 (START) and 0.63 (MAI).

Conclusion and Relevance: We developed and internally validated a score for prediction of risk of rehospitalization and mortality in hospitalized older people. The score discriminated risk considerably better than available tools for inappropriate prescribing. Pending external validation, this score can aid in clinical identification of high-risk patients and targeting of interventions. 

Keyword [en]
Geriatrics, drugs, risk-estimation, polypharmacy, pharmacotherapy
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234487OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-234487DiVA: diva2:756798
Available from: 2014-10-20 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2015-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improving the Quality and Safety of Drug Use in Hospitalized Elderly: Assessing the Effects of Clinical Pharmacist Interventions and Identifying Patients at Risk of Drug-related Morbidity and Mortality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Quality and Safety of Drug Use in Hospitalized Elderly: Assessing the Effects of Clinical Pharmacist Interventions and Identifying Patients at Risk of Drug-related Morbidity and Mortality
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Older people admitted to hospital are at high risk of rehospitalization and medication errors. We have demonstrated, in a randomized controlled trial, that a clinical pharmacist intervention reduces the incidence of revisits to hospital for patients aged 80 years or older admitted to an acute internal medicine ward. The aims of this thesis were to further study the effects of the intervention and to investigate possibilities of targeting the intervention by identifying predictors of treatment response or adverse health outcomes.

The effect of the pharmacist intervention on the appropriateness of prescribing was assessed, by using three validated tools. This study showed that the quality of prescribing was improved for the patients in the intervention group but not for those in the control group. However, no association between the appropriateness of prescribing at discharge and revisits to hospital was observed.

Subgroup analyses explored whether the clinical pharmacist intervention was equally effective in preventing emergency department visits in patients with few or many prescribed drugs and in those with different levels of inappropriate prescribing on admission. The intervention appeared to be most effective in patients taking fewer drugs, but the treatment effect was not altered by appropriateness of prescribing.

The most relevant risk factors for rehospitalization and mortality were identified for the same study population, and a score for risk-estimation was constructed and internally validated (the 80+ score). Seven variables were selected. Impaired renal function, pulmonary disease, malignant disease, living in a nursing home, being prescribed an opioid and being prescribed a drug for peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease were associated with an increased risk, while being prescribed an antidepressant drug (tricyclic antidepressants not included) was linked with a lower risk. These variables made up the components of the 80+ score. Pending external validation, this score has potential to aid identification of high-risk patients.

The last study investigated the occurrence of prescription errors when patients with multi-dose dispensed (MDD) drugs were discharged from hospital. Twenty-five percent of the MDD orders contained at least one medication prescription error. Almost half of the errors were of moderate or major severity, with potential to cause increased health-care utilization. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 65 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1049
Keyword
Adverse drug events, inappropriate prescribing, medication errors, polypharmacy, medication reconciliation, medication review, patient drug counseling, multi-dose dispensed drugs, risk-estimation, multiprofessional collaboration, prediction model, quality measure, rehospitalization
National Category
Clinical Medicine Geriatrics Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234488 (URN)978-91-554-9088-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-11, Aula Gunnesalen, Ingång 10, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2015-02-03

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

By organisation
Department of Medical SciencesDepartment of Pharmaceutical BiosciencesUCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center
Clinical Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 573 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf