Measurement of Ionized Metal Flux Fraction in HiPIMS by Retarding Field QCM Analyzer
2014 (English)In: 41st International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, April 28 - May 2, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
In this contribution, we describe measurements of the ionized metal flux fraction, the ratio between ionized and neutral metal species, arriving to the substrate in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS). The ionized metal flux fraction is determined from the deposition rate of ions and neutrals. In order to determine the respective rates, a combination of a retarding field and by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used. Two different sensors were tested. A standard QCM equipped with a set of grids and an alternative grid-less sensor which was developed in order to increase the sensitivity. The grid-less sensor uses magnetic field to repel electrons and the bias voltage is applied directly to the QCM top electrode.
We report results for two materials, Ni and Ti. Ti was characterized both in nonreactive (Ar) and reactive (Ar+O2) atmosphere. Measurements with the QCM analyzer showed an ionized fraction of up to 50% for Ni. Somewhat higher values, exceeding 60%, were measured for Ti. In this case, shorter on times lead to higher ionized fraction at the same deposition rate and average discharge power. In reactive sputtering of Ti, substantially higher ionized fraction was observed in the oxide mode as compared to the metal mode. Already at lower values of the peak power, there was a significant fraction of Ti ions in the oxide mode.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Plasma technologies, HiPIMS, Ionization degree, Thin films
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234700OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-234700DiVA: diva2:757622
41st International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, April 28 - May 2, 2014