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Origin and Lifestyles of early Brachiopods and other Lophotrochozoans: Insights from the Chengjiang and Guanshan Fossil-Lagerstätten
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the great unsolved evolutionary questions concerns the origin and phylogeny of the major animal phyla that appeared in the fossil record more than 540 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion. Although new molecular information has been very useful, we still have little understanding about the origin of most of the phyla of bilaterians living today. The richly diverse fossil remains from this critical early Cambrian interval are particularly well exposed in China, where exceptionally-preserved fossil lophotrochozoans including brachiopods are particularly abundant. In particular the exceptionally-preserved Cambrian lophophorates from the Chengjiang and Guanshan Lagerstätten have offered new sources of critical palaeobiological data that have been shown to be important for understanding the early ecology and evolution of lophotrochozoans. This thesis comprises a detailed study of new, abundant, exceptionally-preserved material of five lophotrochozoan species from the Chengjiang and Guanshan Lagerstätten. Kuangshanotreta malungensis from Chengjiang is the earliest known example of an attached acrotretoid brachiopod representing the oldest evidence about the palaeoecology of the diverse yet, enigmatic acrotretoid linguliform stock that comprises an important component of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna. Eoglossa chengjiangensis from Chengjiang is the earliest known representative of the Glossellinae. Diandongia pista occurs abundantly both in the Chengjiang fauna and the younger Guanshan fauna, and it’s exceptionally well-preserved and strongly mineralized shells shows that it belongs within the Botsfordiidae. In contrast, the last two species from Chengjiang examined for this thesis - Yuganotheca elegans and Cotyledion tylodes belong within the stem of the Brachiopoda and the Lophotrochozoan entoprocts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1198
Keyword [en]
Cambrian Explosion, Chengjiang, Guanshan, Lagerstätten, Lophotrochozoa, Brachiopoda
National Category
Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234843ISBN: 978-91-554-9092-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-234843DiVA: diva2:757957
Public defence
2014-12-12, Axel Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2015-02-03
List of papers
1. Peduncular attached secondary tiering acrotretoid brachiopods from the Chengjiang fauna: Implications for the ecological expansion of brachiopods during the Cambrian explosion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peduncular attached secondary tiering acrotretoid brachiopods from the Chengjiang fauna: Implications for the ecological expansion of brachiopods during the Cambrian explosion
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2012 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 323-325, 60-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brachiopods are usually thought to contribute little to the tiering complexity from the Paleozoic to the Recent, mainly due to the fact that their recent representatives live primarily in lower tiers directly above or below the water-sediment interface. Here we present the first and oldest record of varied levels of secondary tiering in minute brachiopods attached by exceptionally preserved thread-like pedicles around the branched fronds of the algae-like Malongitubus kuangshanensis Hu, 2005. The specimens illustrated herein were recovered from the Chengjiang fauna (Series 2, Stage 3) in the Lower Cambrian Heilinpu Formation at the Kuangshan section in Malong County, Yunnan Province, southern China. The micro-morphology and oval outline of the attached brachiopods demonstrate that they can be assigned to acrotretoid brachiopods (Linguliformea, Lingulata, Acrotretoidea), described here as Kuangshanotreta malungensis gen. et sp. nov. This is the first report on the occurrence of acrotretoid brachiopods in the Lower Cambrian muddy deposits from southern China. The posterior margins of the Kuangshanotreta shells are invariably either in direct contact with, or directed towards, and then in situ attached to the algal frond of M. kuangshanensis, indicating a secondary tiering in the ecological structure of Early Cambrian brachiopods. The acrotretoid Kuangshanotreta/algae malongitubus association represents both the first and oldest evidence into the enigmatic paleoecology of the diverse acrotretoid linguliformean stock that comprises an important component of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna, and sheds light on medium-high levels of secondary tiering (+5 to +10 cm) Cambrian soft substrate suspension-feeding communities. When compared to other Chengjiang brachiopods, the miniature morphology and concomitant weight reduction of the shell of K. malungensis may be a good adaption to a suspended epifaunal tiering life style. We infer that the diversification of micromorphic and miniaturized acrotretoids that occurred from the Middle Cambrian to Early Ordovician may be the result of the increased availability of habitable surfaces provided by high levels of tiering in new types of ecological spaces.

Keyword
Cambrian, Brachiopods, Lingulata, Acrotretoidea, Epifauna, Secondary tiering
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-174009 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.027 (DOI)000302524000005 ()
Available from: 2012-05-10 Created: 2012-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Oldest glosselline linguliform brachiopod with soft parts from the Lower Cambrian of Yunnan, Southern China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oldest glosselline linguliform brachiopod with soft parts from the Lower Cambrian of Yunnan, Southern China
2014 (English)In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 136, no 4, 539-547 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lingulella chengjiangensis Jin, Huo & Wang, 1993 is one of the most abundant brachiopods from the celebrated Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte. A detailed study of abundant new well-preserved specimens clearly shows that their morphology and preserved soft anatomy differ widely from that of the linguliforms of the subfamily Obolinae, including Lingulella. L. chengjiangensis is herein re-described as the probable earliest member of the subfamily Glossellinae, which was previously known only from the Ordovician, and is referred to the new genus Eoglossa. Eoglossa chengjiangensis differs from species of Lingulella in lacking a dorsal pseudointerarea, having an elevated ventral proparea without flexure lines, and in the lack of pitting on the visceral areas of both valves. The detailed study of the exceptionally preserved specimens of E. chengjiangensis also reveals that it bears a unique musculature, which includes a single umbonal scar and a pair of posterolateral scars on each valve. The material of E. chengjiangensis also permits a more detailed study of the pedicle giving further insights into the early diversification and life habit of the linguliform brachiopods.

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224525 (URN)10.1080/11035897.2014.914969 (DOI)000345381600003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. New observations on the most mineralized brachiopod Diandongia from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian, Stage 3) of eastern Yunnan, China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New observations on the most mineralized brachiopod Diandongia from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian, Stage 3) of eastern Yunnan, China
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Lower Cambrian, Brachiopoda, Linguliformea, Botsfordiidae
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234840 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-24 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2015-02-03
4. A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications
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2013 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, 1066- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Lophotrochozoa includes disparate tentacle-bearing sessile protostome animals, which apparently appeared in the Cambrian explosion, but lack an uncontested fossil record. Here we describe abundant well preserved material of Cotyledion tylodes Luo et Hu, 1999, from the Cambrian (Series 2) Chengjiang deposits, reinterpreted here as a stem-group entoproct. The entoproct affinity is supported by the sessile body plan and interior soft anatomy. The body consists of an upper calyx and a lower elongate stalk with a distal holdfast. The soft anatomy includes a U-shaped gut with a mouth and aboral anus ringed by retractable marginal tentacles. Cotyledion differs from extant entoprocts in being larger, and having the calyx and the stalk covered by numerous loosely-spaced external sclerites. The description of entoprocts from the Chengjiang biota traces the ancestry of yet another lophotrochozoan phylum back to the Cambrian radiation, and has important implications for the earliest evolution of lophotrochozoans.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194748 (URN)10.1038/srep01066 (DOI)000313650900001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012–1658
Available from: 2013-03-13 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
2014 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, 4682- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen.et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long coelomic pedicle providing anchorage. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

National Category
Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216152 (URN)10.1038/srep04682 (DOI)000335885800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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