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Hydroacoustic measurements of the radiated noise from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil project and project WESA
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (Vågkraft)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2013 (English)In: Proceedings UA 2013 / [ed] John S. Papadakis & Leif Bjørnø, 2013, 199-209 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Field measurements of the hydroacoustic noise from Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University and the Project WESA (joint effort between Uppsala University (Lead Partner), Ålands Teknikkluster r.f. and University of Turku) are presented. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans world wide and wave energy conversion may contribute to this noise, but to what extent? The main objective in this study is to examine the noise from full scale operating WECs in the Lysekil and project WESA. Acoustic measurements were made in order to be able to estimate potential environmental impact. Submersible recording devices (SRD) were deployed at 1 m from WECs at a depth of approximately 24 meters. Both WECs are a full scale point absorber with a directly driven linear generator, placed on gravitation foundations at the seabed with a connected buoy at the surface that absorbs energy from the heaving waves. The SRDs used to measure the noise from the WECs, consists of a SM2-recorder from Wildlife Acoustics and hydrophones from High Tech Inc. (HTI 96 MIN and HTI 99 HF). Measurements at in the Lysekil project were carried out in the spring of 2013 and in the project WESA in Jan-Feb of 2012. Preliminary results show that the main operating noise radiated from the WEC are short transients with instant rise time when the translator moves past the stator and when the stator hits the end stop springs of the generator. Most of the power in the noise is between 20 – 1000 Hz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. 199-209 p.
Keyword [en]
Wave Energy Converter, Underwater noise, renewable energy
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234926ISBN: 978-618-80725-0-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-234926DiVA: diva2:758375
Conference
1st international conference and exhibition on Underwater Acoustics, UA2013, Corfu, Greece, 23rd - 28th June 2013
Projects
LysekilsprojektetProjekt WESA
Available from: 2014-10-27 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2015-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Underwater radiated noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underwater radiated noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The conversion of wave energy into electrical energy has the potential to become a clean and sustainable form of renewable energy conversion. However, like all forms of energy conversion it will inevitably have an impact on the marine environment, although not in the form of emissions of hazardous substances (gases, oils or chemicals associated with anticorrosion). Possible environmental issues associated with wave energy conversion include electromagnetic fields, alteration of sedimentation and hydrologic regimes and underwater radiated noise.

Underwater noise has the potential to propagate over long distances and thus have the potential to disturb marine organisms far away from the noise source. There is great variation in the ability to perceive sound between marine organisms, one sound that is clearly audible to one species can be completely inaudible to another. Thus, to be able to determine potential environmental impact from WECs associated with underwater noise, the noise radiated from the WECs must be known. This thesis presents results from studies on the underwater radiated noise from four different full-scale WECs in the Lysekil Wave Power Project.

Hydrophones were used to measure the underwater radiated noise from operating point absorbing linear WECs. The main purpose was to study the radiated noise from the operating WECs with emphasis on characteristics such as spectrum levels, Sound Pressure Level (SPL), noise duration and repetition rate. This to be able to determine the origin of the noise and if possible, implement design changes to minimize radiated noise.

The results identified two main operational noises (transients with the bulk of the energy in frequencies <1 kHz). The SPL of the radiated noise fluctuated significantly, depending on wave height. Broadband SPLrms of the measurements ranged between ~110 dB and ~140 dB re 1 µPa and SPLpeak of specific noises ranges between ~140 and ~180 dB re µPa. Audibility was estimated range from 1km to 15 km depending critically on species and on assumptions of propagation loss. The noise is not expected to have any negative effects on behaviour or mask any signals, unless in the vicinity (<150m) of the WECs in significant wave heights. No physical damage, even in close vicinity are expected on either fish or marine mammals.

Having the aim to have as little impact on the environment a possible, these studies are important. This way precautions can be implemented early in the technical development of this kind of renewable energy converters. The benefits from the WECs the Lysekil wave power project are believed to outweigh possible environmental impacts due to underwater radiated noise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 62 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1200
Keyword
Wave energy conversion, renewable energy, environmental impact, marine ecology, underwater noise
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235016 (URN)978-91-554-9097-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-12, Häggsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid avhandlingens tryckläggning upptäcktes inte att tidpunkt för disputation var fel.

Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2015-02-03

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Haikonen, KalleSundberg, JanLeijon, Mats

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