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Thickness dependency of mechanical properties for thin-walled titanium parts manufactured by Electron Beam Melting (EBM®)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5292-2504
Center for Additive Manufacturing and Logistics, North Carolina State University.
Center for Additive Manufacturing and Logistics, North Carolina State University.
Center for Additive Manufacturing and Logistics, North Carolina State University.
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(English)In: Additive Manufacturing Journal, ISSN 2214-8604Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Metal powder bed additive manufacturing technologies, such as the Electron Beam Melting process, facilitate a high degree of geometric flexibility and have been demonstrated as useful production techniques for metallic parts.  

However, the EBM process is typically associated with lower resolutions and higher surface roughness compared to similar laser-based powder bed metal processes. In part, this difference is related to the larger powder size distribution and thicker layers normally use As part of an effort to improve the resolution and surface roughness of EBM fabricated components, this study investigates the feasibility of fabricating components with a smaller powder size fraction and layer thickness (similar to laser based processes). The surface morphology, microstructure and tensile properties of the produced samples were evaluated. The findings indicate that microstructure is dependent on wall-thickness and that, for thin walled structures, tensile properties can become dominated by variations in surface roughness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier.
Keyword [en]
Additive Manufacturing; Electron Beam Melting; Ti-6Al-4V; Mechanical Properties
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236648OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-236648DiVA: diva2:764855
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-02-03
In thesis
1. Optimization of Electron Beam Melting for Production of Small Components in Biocompatible Titanium Grades
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Electron Beam Melting for Production of Small Components in Biocompatible Titanium Grades
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3D-printing, are technologies where parts are formed from the bottom up by adding material layer-by-layer on top of each other. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an AM technique capable of manufacturing fully solid metallic parts, using a high-intensity electron beam to melt powder particles in layers to form finished components. Compared to conventional machining, EBM offers enhanced efficiency for production of customized and patient specific parts such as e.g. dental prosthetics. However, dental prosthetics are challenging to produce by EBM, as their small sizes mean that mechanical and surface properties may be altered as part sizes decreases.

The aim of this thesis is to gain new insights that could lead to optimization for production of small sized components in the EBM. The work is focused to understand the process-property relationships for small size components production.

To improve the surface resolution and part detailing, a smaller sized powder was used for production and compared to parts made with standard sized powder. The surface-, chemical and mechanical properties were evaluated for parts produced with both types of powders. The results indicate that the surface roughness may be influenced by powder and build layer thickness size, whereas the mechanical properties showed no influence of the layer-wise production. However, the mechanical properties are dependent on part size. The outermost surface of the parts consists of a surface oxide dominated by TiO2, formed as a result of reaction between the surface and residual gases in the EBM build chamber. The surface oxide thickness is comparable to that of a conventionally machined surface, but is dependent on build height.

This work concludes that the surface resolution and component detailing can be improved by various measures. Provided that proper process themes are used, the EBM manufactured material is homogenous with properties comparable to conventional produced titanium. It has also been shown that the material properties will be altered for small components. The results point towards different ways of optimizing manufacturing of dental prosthetics by EBM, which will make dental prosthetics available for an increased number of patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1206
Keyword
Additive Manufacturing, 3D-printing, Electron Beam Melting, Titanium alloys, Chemical properties, Mechanical properties, Surface properties, Additiv tillverkning, 3D-skrivare, Electron Beam Melting, Titan, Kemiska egenskaper, Mekaniska egenskaper, Ytegenskaper
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236709 (URN)978-91-554-9110-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-23, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2015-02-03

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Karlsson, Joakim

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