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Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation indown-built diapirs
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.ORCID iD: B-9710-2014
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
Goethe-University, Institute of Geoscience, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
2014 (English)In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 632, 111-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformationwithin a down-builtdiapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden unitswhich sinkinto a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layerfeeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup westudy the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezedchannel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and(III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformationin each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2Dfinite deformationwithin the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strainaccumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expectedchannel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays ahigh deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and itsboundaries.High deformation zoneswithin the stemcould also be observedwithin natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa,Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could revealinformation about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directlybe correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 632, 111-122 p.
Keyword [en]
Numerical modeling, Salt tectonics, Progressive and finite deformation, Differential loading
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237448DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.06.005ISI: 000343378500009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-237448DiVA: diva2:767997
Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strain quantifications in different tectonic scales using numerical modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strain quantifications in different tectonic scales using numerical modelling
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on calculation of finite and progressive deformation in different tectonic scales using 2D numerical models with application to natural cases. Essentially, two major tectonic areas have been covered: a) salt tectonics and b) upper mantle deformation due to interaction between the lithosphere and asthenosphere.

The focus in salt tectonics lies on deformation within down-built diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem. Three deformation regimes have been identified within the salt: (I) a squeezing channel flow underneath the overburden, (II) a corner flow underneath the stem, and (III) a pure channel flow within the stem. The results of the model show that the deformation pattern within the stem of a diapir (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) can reveal information on different rates of salt supplies from the source layer (e.g. observed in Klodowa-diapir, Poland). Composite rock salt rheology results in strong localization and amplification of the strain along the salt layer boundaries in comparison to Newtonian rock salt. Flow and fold structures of passive marker lines are directly correlated to natural folds within a salt diapir.

In case of the upper mantle, focus lies on deformation and resulting lattice preferred orientation (LPO) underneath an oceanic plate. Sensitivity of deformation and seismic anisotropy on rheology, grain size (d), temperature (T), and kinematics (v) has been investigated. The results of the model show that the mechanical lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is strongly controlled by T and less so by v or d. A higher strain concentration within the asthenosphere (e.g. for smaller potential mantle temperatures, higher plate velocities, or smaller d) indicates a weaker coupling between the plate and the underlying mantle, which becomes stronger with the age of the plate. A Poiseuille flow within the asthenosphere, significantly affects the deformation and LPO in the upper mantle. The results of the model show, that deformation in the upper mantle at a certain distance away from the ridge depends on the absolute velocity in the asthenosphere. However, only in cases of a driving upper mantle base does the seismic anisotropy and delay times reach values within the range of natural data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 58 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1354
Keyword
Deformation modelling, progressive and finite deformation, salt tectonics, down-built diapir, upper mantle, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, seismic anisotropy, plate-mantle (de)coupling
National Category
Geology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280759 (URN)978-91-554-9513-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-04, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-04-12

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Fuchs, LukasKoyi, Hemin

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