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Vinylated linear P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors of the HCV NS3/4A protease and corresponding macrocycles
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 6595-6615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With three recent market approvals and several inhibitors in advanced stages of development, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease represents a successful target for antiviral therapy against hepatitis C. As a consequence of dealing with viral diseases in general, there are concerns related to the emergence of drug resistant strains which calls for development of inhibitors with an alternative binding-mode than the existing highly optimized ones. We have previously reported on the use of phenylglycine as an alternative P2 residue in HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Herein, we present the synthesis, structure-activity relationships and in vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of a diverse series of linear and macrocyclic P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors. With access to vinyl substituents in P3, P2 and P1' positions an initial probing of macrocyclization between different positions, using ring-closing metathesis (RCM) could be performed, after addressing some synthetic challenges. Biochemical results from the wild type enzyme and drug resistant variants (e.g., R155 K) indicate that P3-P1' macrocyclization, leaving the P2 substituent in a flexible mode, is a promising approach. Additionally, the study demonstrates that phenylglycine based inhibitors benefit from p-phenylpyrimidinyloxy and m-vinyl groups as well as from the combination with an aromatic P1 motif with alkenylic P1' elongations. In fact, linear P2-P1' spanning intermediate compounds based on these fragments were found to display promising inhibitory potencies and drug like properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 22, no 23, p. 6595-6615
Keywords [en]
HCV, NS3, Protease inhibitors, Macrocyclization, Phenylglycine, Metathesis
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239738DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.10.010ISI: 000345287300007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-239738DiVA, id: diva2:775296
Available from: 2014-12-31 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2018-02-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Computational Studies of Macrocycles and Molecular Modeling of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational Studies of Macrocycles and Molecular Modeling of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computational tools are utilized in the drug discovery process to discover, design, and optimize new therapeutics. One important approach is structure-based drug design which relies on knowledge about the 3D structure of the biological target. The first part of this work focuses on applying structure-based drug design for binding mode prediction of HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. The NS3 protease is a challenging target from a computational perspective as it contains an extended binding site. Binding mode predictions were performed for various classes of new acyclic and macrocyclic HCV NS3 protease inhibitors and was used in the design of new inhibitors. None of the synthetized inhibitors have been co-crystallized yet, which has made the evaluation of the suggested binding mode predictions challenging.

Macrocycles are an interesting compound class in drug discovery due to their unique structural architecture, which can enable access to new chemical space. Macrocycles can successfully modulate difficult therapeutic targets, as exemplified in the development of protease inhibitors. Furthermore they can improve drug-like properties, such as cell permeability and bioavailability. The second part of this thesis focuses on macrocycles from a computational point of view. A data set of 47 clinically relevant macrocycles was compiled and used in these studies. First, two different docking protocols rigid docking of pre-generated conformers and flexible docking in Glide were evaluated and compared. The results showed that flexible docking in Glide was sufficient for docking of macrocycles with respect to accuracy and speed.

The aim of the second study was to evaluate and compare the performance of the more general conformational analysis tools, MCMM and MTLMOD, with the recently developed macrocycle-specialized conformational sampling tools, Prime-MCS and MMBS. In most cases, the general conformational analysis tools (with enhanced parameter settings) performed equally well as compared to the macrocycle-specialized conformational sampling techniques. However, MMBS was superior at locating the global energy minimum conformation.

Finally, calculation of the conformational energy penalty of protein-bound macrocycles was performed. The macrocycle data set was complemented with linear analogues that are similar either with respect to physicochemical properties or 2D fingerprints. The conformational energy penalties of these linear analogues were calculated and compared to the conformational energy penalties of the macrocycles. The complete data set of macrocycles and non-macrocycles in this study differ from previously published work addressing conformational energy penalties, since it covers a more extended area of chemical space. Furthermore, there was a weak correlation between the calculated conformational energy penalties and the flexibility of the structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 72
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 247
Keywords
Drug discovery, HCV NS3 protease, macrocycles, conformational analysis, docking.
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry
Research subject
Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340865 (URN)978-91-513-0234-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-23, B21, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-02-04 Last updated: 2018-04-03

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Alogheli, HibaÅkerblom, EvaSvensson, RichardArtursson, PerDanielson, HelenaKarlén, AndersSandström, Anja

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