In this paper, two microwave irradiation methods: (i) liquid-phase microwave irradiation (MWI) reduction of graphite oxide suspension dissolved in de-ionized water and N, N-dimethylformamide, respectively, and (ii) solid-phase MWI reduction of graphite oxide powder have been successfully carried out to reduce graphite oxide. The reduced graphene oxide products are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectral analysis, and four-point probe conductivity measurements. The results show that both methods can efficiently remove the oxygen-containing functional groups attached to the graphite layers, though the solid-phase MWI reduction method can obtain far more efficiently a higher quality-reduced graphene oxide with fewer defects. The I( D)/ I( G) ratio of the solid-phase MWI sample is as low as 0.46, which is only half of that of the liquid-phase MWI samples. The electrical conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide by the solid method reaches 747.9 S/m, which is about 25 times higher than that made by the liquid-phase method.
2014. Vol. 23, no 12, 128101- p.