Origin of REE mineralization in the Bastnas-type Fe-REE-(Cu-Mo-Bi-Au) deposits, Bergslagen, Sweden
2014 (English)In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 49, no 8, 933-966 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The Bastnas-type deposits, with mineral assemblages of Fe oxides, Ca-Mg silicates, rare earth element (REE) silicates, REE fluorocarbonates, and Cu-Fe-Mo-Bi sulfides, are associated with marble horizons in a strongly Na, K, and/or Mg altered, metavolcanic succession, over a distance of at least 80 km in a SW-NE trending zone in western Bergslagen. Two subtypes occur: (1) enriched (relative to the other type) in light REE (LREE) and Fe, exemplified by the Bastnas and Rodbergsgruvan deposits, and (2) enriched in heavy REE (HREE), Y, Mg, Ca, and F, represented by deposits in the Norberg district. Bastnasite hosts primary fluid H2O-CO2 inclusions with salinities of 6-29 eq. wt% CaCl2 and with total homogenization temperatures (Th-tot) of ca. 300-400 degrees C. Subtype 2 has late-stage fluorite with fluid inclusions that show 1-16 eq. wt% NaCl and Th-tot of ca. 90-150 degrees C. Molybdenite Re-Os ages obtained from three deposits are 1,904 +/- 6, 1,863 +/- 4, and 1,842 +/- 4 Ma. Nd isotopic data from five different REE minerals yielded no defined isochron, but a range in epsilon(Nd) (1.88 Ga) of +0.2 to +1.6. The oxygen isotope values (delta O-18(SMOW)) of dolomite and calcite from the associated REE-mineralized skarn and recrystallized carbonate assemblages lie in the range 6.1-8.6 parts per thousand, overlapping with those of the host marbles. Carbon isotope values (delta C-13(PDB)) show typical magmatic signatures of -6.7 to -4.4 parts per thousand, while the host marbles group around ca. -2.4 parts per thousand. The sulfur isotope (delta S-34(CDT)) values of associated sulfides range between -10.8 and +0.2 parts per thousand. The combined evidence suggests REE mineralization, beginning at 1.9 Ga, from mainly Svecofennian, juvenile magmatic (>400 degrees C) fluids carrying Si, F, Cl, S, CO2, and the REE in addition to other metals; mineralization occurred through reactions with dolomitic layers in the supracrustal units coevally with regional metasomatic alteration associated with fluid circulation through an extensive active volcano-plutonic complex.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 49, no 8, 933-966 p.
REE mineralization, Fluid inclusions, Isotope geochemistry, Bastnas, Norberg, Bergslagen
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240082DOI: 10.1007/s00126-014-0553-0ISI: 000345391200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240082DiVA: diva2:775956