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Microdiamond discovered in the Seve Nappe (Scandinavian Caledonides) and its exhumation by the "vacuum-cleaner" mechanism
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
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2014 (English)In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 42, no 12, 1107-1110 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When a continent collides with an island arc or other continent, continental crust of the subducted continent may be buried to depths exceeding 100 km, and exposed to pressures that can cause formation of coesite and diamond. This process leads to substantial density increase in SiO2-rich rocks and, in turn, to a reduction of the buoyancy of the subducted material, which should inhibit exhumation. Nevertheless, coesite- and diamond-bearing continental crustal rocks are known from several occurrences worldwide. We report on the discovery of microdiamond in kyanite-garnet gneiss from allochthonous metasediments of the Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Our discovery calls for general reconsideration of existing exhumation models of deeply subducted continental crust. We propose that the diamond-bearing rocks were subducted in an arc-continent collision setting, and their exhumation was facilitated by local pressure reduction resulting from extraction of the forearc lithospheric block.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 42, no 12, 1107-1110 p.
National Category
Geology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240073DOI: 10.1130/G36108.1ISI: 000345440600021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240073DiVA: diva2:775960
Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Deep subduction of the Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep subduction of the Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis seeks to improve our understanding of the processes involved in continental collision zones, with a particular focus on subduction-exhumation. The main objective of this work has been to define the tectonometamorphic evolution of the deeply subducted Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides. I utilize mineralogy, petrology and geochronology to constrain the P-T-t paths of the SNC rocks in Sweden.

The research has focused on the high grade rocks of the SNC and resulted in the discovery of metamorphic diamonds within the gneisses in west-central Jämtland and southern Västerbotten. Microdiamonds provided evidence for the ultra-high pressure metamorphism (UHPM) and subduction of continental rocks to mantle depths. The UHPM in these rocks was confirmed by calculations of the P-T conditions. The UHPM is further recorded by eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from northern Jämtland and eclogites from Norrbotten. All these findings provide compelling evidence for regional UHPM of vast parts of the SNC (at least 400 km along the strike of this allochthonous unit). The SNC rocks followed nearly isothermal decompression paths and paragneisses have locally experienced partial melting during exhumation. Formation of the peculiar Ba- and Ti-enriched dark mica in the Tväråklumparna metasediments is related to the latter stage.

In-situ monazite dating of the diamond-bearing gneisses from west-central Jämtland supports previous geochronological data inferring that the peak of metamorphism is probably Middle Ordovician and was followed by Early Silurian partial melting. The exact timing of the UHPM here still remains to be resolved. The Lu-Hf garnet and U-Pb zircon dating of eclogite and gneiss from northern Jämtland confirms the Middle Ordovician age of the UHP-HP metamorphism of the SNC rocks. The chemical dating of monazite from the Marsfjället gneiss suggests an earlier UHP history of the Seve rocks in southern Västerbotten as a post-UHP uplift is dated to ca. 470 Ma.

Based on the P-T-t data obtained in this thesis, particularly on the evidence for Middle Ordovician UHPM and subsequent Silurian exhumation, a new tectonic model for the Scandinavian Caledonides has been proposed. The outcomes of this thesis therefore improve our understanding of the tectonometamorphic history of the Caledonides.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 63 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1595
Keyword
geothermobarometry, thermodynamic modelling, Raman spectroscopy, diamond, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism, eclogite, peridotite, gneiss
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332525 (URN)978-91-513-0139-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-08, Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesThe Crafoord Foundation
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2017-11-17

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Majka, JaroslawKlonowska, Iwona

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