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Ophthalmological findings in 10-year-old full-term children: a population-based study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
Karolinska Institutet.
2015 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 93, no 2, 192-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To determine different ophthalmological parameters in 10-year-old, healthy, full-term children in Stockholm County, Sweden.

Methods

Two hundred and seventeen children were included in the study. Best-corrected distance and near visual acuities (VA) were measured using logMAR charts. Cycloplegic retinoscopy was performed, and spherical equivalent and astigmatism were determined. Examination of ocular movement and cover test for distance and near were performed. Stereopsis was assessed with the TNO test, and contrast sensitivity with the Vistech test. The Royal Air Force rule was used for assessing accommodation, and near point of convergence was measured with the Lang fixation stick. Ophthalmoscopy was performed through dilated pupils.

Results

Eighty-two per cent of the children had a distance VA of −0.1 logMAR (1.3 Snellen acuity) or better. None of the children were visually impaired [VA >0.6 logMAR (<0.3 Snellen acuity)]. Ninety-three per cent had a near VA of −0.1 logMAR (1.25 Snellen acuity) or better. Mean spherical equivalent was 0.6 D. Eight (3.6%) children had hypermetropia (≥+2 D), and 17 (7.8%) were myopic (≤−0.5 D). Nine (4.1%) children had an astigmatism ≥1 D, and two (0.9%) had anisometropia of ≥1 D. Manifest strabismus was found in seven (3.2%) children, five of whom had exotropia. Heterophoria for distance and/or near was found in 80.2% of the children. In children without manifest strabismus, stereopsis >60 seconds of arc was found in five (2.4%). Three (1.4%) of 215 children had contrast sensitivity below normal limits. Binocular median near point of accommodation was 14 D, and median near point of convergence 6 cm.

Conclusion

Knowledge of various visual functions in normally developing children is crucial to be able to draw conclusions from ophthalmological examinations in children with eye diseases. This population-based study describes different ophthalmological parameters in full-term ten-year-old children. The material can be used as a control when examining children of similar ages with various ophthalmological conditions, such as groups of children with specific neurological or retinal diseases, and syndromes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 93, no 2, 192-198 p.
Keyword [en]
Ophthalmological findings, children
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Ophtalmology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240173DOI: 10.1111/aos.12476ISI: 000349900200039PubMedID: 25041696OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240173DiVA: diva2:776032
Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, EvaHolmström, Gerd

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