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Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. (CEMPEG)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. (CEMPEG)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
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2015 (English)In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, 137-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 97, no 1, 137-166 p.
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240752DOI: 10.1111/geoa.12099ISI: 000350500400010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-240752DiVA: diva2:777058
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterising volcanic magma plumbing systems: A tool to improve eruption forecasting at hazardous volcanoes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterising volcanic magma plumbing systems: A tool to improve eruption forecasting at hazardous volcanoes
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis attempts to develop our understanding of volcanic magma plumbing systems and the magmatic processes that operate within them, such as fractional crystallisation, crustal partial melting, assimilation, and magma mixing. I utilise petrology, rock and mineral geochemistry, and isotope systematics to seek to improve our ability to forecast the eruptive frequency and style of active volcanoes, an aspect often lacking in current volcano monitoring efforts. In particular, magma reservoir dynamics are investigated from a mineral scale at Katla volcano in Iceland, to a sub-mineral scale at Merapi, Kelud, and Toba volcanoes in Indonesia.

The magma plumbing architecture of Katla volcano on Iceland is explored in the first part of this thesis. Crystalline components within tephra and volcanic rock preserve a record of the physical and chemical evolution of a magma, and are analysed through oxygen isotopic and thermobarometric techniques to temporally constrain changes in reservoir depth and decode the petrogenesis of the lavas. We find both prolonged upper crustal magma storage and shallow level assimilation to be occurring at Katla. The results generated from combining these analytical strands reveal the potential for unpredictable explosive volcanism at this lively Icelandic volcano.

The second part of this thesis examines the magma plumbing systems of Merapi, Kelud and Toba volcanoes of the Sunda arc in Indonesia at higher temporal and petrological resolution than possible for Katla (e.g., due to the crystal poor character of the rocks). For this part of the thesis, minerals were analysed in-situ to take advantage of sub-crystal scale isotopic variations in order to investigate processes of shallow-level assimilation in the build-up to particular eruptions. We find that intra-crystal analyses reveal an otherwise hidden differentiation history at these volcanoes, and establish a better understanding as to how they may have rapidly achieved a critical explosive state.

The outcomes of this thesis therefore deepen our knowledge of evolutionary trends in magma plumbing system dynamics, and highlight the importance of understanding the geochemical processes that can prime a volcano for eruption. Lastly, I emphasise the vital contribution petrology can make in current volcano monitoring efforts. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 42 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1325
Keyword
magma plumbing, oxygen isotopes, thermobarometry, crustal assimilation, Katla, Merapi, Kelud, Toba, volcanic hazards
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267473 (URN)978-91-554-9424-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-01-13
2. Magma plumbing architecture in Indonesia and the North Atlantic Igneous Province
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma plumbing architecture in Indonesia and the North Atlantic Igneous Province
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magma plumbing systems represent the physical framework of magma transport and storage from the source region in the mantle, through the crust, until reaching the surface in a volcanic eruption. Characterising the different aspects of magma plumbing, in particular the distribution of magma storage zones throughout the crust, is of key importance to better understand the behaviour of individual volcanoes. In particular, shallow crustal magma storage and associated magma-crust interaction processes could potentially explain some of the worlds most unpredictable and explosive volcanoes. This thesis studies magma plumbing architecture in the Sunda Arc (Indonesia), and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, based on elemental and isotope geochemistry, and derived petrological modelling.

In this study, I have employed petrological models, so called geothermobarometers, to calculate pressures and temperatures (P-T) of crustal magma storage. Geothermobarometers are calibrated thermodynamic formulations based on the composition of magmatic minerals and their co-existing melt as a function of the P-T conditions of crystallisation. Using the calculated P-T estimates, I was able to derive the depth of magma storage, and thereby reconstruct the architecture of magma storage systems. A number of different geothermobarometers based on different mineral phases, including plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, were used for this purpose,

The geothermobarometric modelling was combined with additional elemental and isotope geochemical analyses, as well as collaborations with geophysical investigations. These additional approaches were used to corroborate the findings of the geothermobarometric modelling, and also to model and quantify magma-crust interaction processes that take place during crustal magma storage, such as assimilation of crustal lithologies into the magmatic system.

The findings of this thesis build upon the growing body of evidence in support of the prevalence of shallow magma storage in different volcanic settings worldwide. This realisation is relevant to volcano monitoring and hazard mitigation worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 46 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1328
Keyword
magma plumbing, geothermobarometry, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magma-crust interaction, hazard mitigation
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267764 (URN)978-91-554-9430-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-28, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-07-12

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Troll, ValentinDeegan, FrancesJolis, Ester MuñosBudd, DavidDahrén, Börje

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