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The 2011-2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro, Canary Islands: New lessons in oceanic island growth and volcanic crisis management
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. (CEMPEG)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. (CEMPEG)
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2015 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 150, 168-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forty years after the eruption of the Teneguía volcano on La Palma, 1971, the last volcanic event in the Canary Islands, a submarine eruption took place in 2011 off-shore El Hierro, the smallest and youngest island of the archipelago. In this paper, we review the periods of seismic unrest leading up to the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption, the timeline of eruptive events, the erupted products, the wider societal impacts, and the insights garnered for our understanding of ocean island growth mechanisms and hazard management. Seismic precursors allowed early detection of magmatic activity and prediction of the approximate location of the eruption. White coloured “floating stones” (“xeno-pumice”) were described within the first few days of the events, the origin of which were hotly debated because of their potential implications for the character of the eruption. Due to epistemic uncertainty derived from delayed flow of scientific information and equivocal interpretations of the “floating stones”, the El Hierro 2011–2012 events were characterised by cautious civil protection measures, which greatly impacted on the residents' lives and on the island's economy. We therefore summarise the scientific lessons learned from this most recent Canary Island eruption and discuss how emergency managers might cope with similar situations of uncertainty during future eruptive events in the region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 150, 168-200 p.
Keyword [en]
El Hierro; Submarine eruption; Ocean islands; Magmatic underplating; Island growth and evolution; Volcanic crisis management
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-241062DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.06.007ISI: 000364796200010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-241062DiVA: diva2:777578
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council, 2013-5628
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Troll, ValentinZaczek, KirstenDeegan, Frances

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