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Carbon dioxide evasion from headwater systems strongly contributes to the total export of carbon from a small boreal lake catchment
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 120, no 1, 13-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inland waters are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling and therefore important for landscape C budgets. Small streams and lakes are particularly important; however, quantifying C fluxes is difficult and has rarely been done for the entire aquatic continuum, composed of connected streams and lakes within the same catchment. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion and fluvial fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (DIC and DOC) in stream and lake systems within the 2.3km(2) catchment of a small boreal lake. Our results show pronounced spatial and temporal variability in C fluxes even at a small spatial scale. C loss from the catchment through CO2 evasion from headwaters for the total open water-sampling period was 9.7g C m(-2) catchment, dominating the total catchment C loss (including CO2 evasion, DIC, and DOC export from the lake, which were 2.7, 0.2, and 5.2g C m(-2) catchment, respectively). Aquatic CO2 evasion was dominated by headwater streams that occupy similar to 0.1% of the catchment but contributed 65% to the total aquatic CO2 evasion from the catchment. The importance of streams was mainly an effect of the higher gas transfer velocities than compared to lakes (median, 67 and 2.2cmh(-1), respectively). Accurately estimating the contribution of C fluxes from headwater streams, particularly the temporal and spatial dynamics in their gas transfer velocity, is key to landscape-scale C budgets. This study demonstrates that CO2 evasion from headwaters can be the major pathway of C loss from boreal catchments, even at a small spatial scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 120, no 1, 13-28 p.
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-241585DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002706ISI: 000349899200002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-241585DiVA: diva2:779938
Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The role of sediments in the carbon cycle of boreal lakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of sediments in the carbon cycle of boreal lakes
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Inland waters are active sites of carbon (C) processing and emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. In the boreal zone, where surface waters receive large quantities of organic carbon (OC) from surrounding forests and wetlands, lakes and streams act as strong sources of these greenhouse gases. Lake sediments provide the only long-term sink of C in boreal inland waters, through burial of OC. However, mineralization of OC counteracts the efficiency of lake sediments in removing C from the short-term C cycle. In this context, this thesis provides a better insight into the dual role of boreal lake sediments as C source and C sink.

The presented work is based on empirical assessments of OC burial and OC mineralization rates in boreal lakes. The temporal variability of OC burial and the stability of the buried OC was assessed on both centennial and millennial timescales. The quantitative importance of sediment OC burial and mineralization in comparison both to other C fluxes within the lake, and to C fluxes within the tributary stream network, was quantified. By simulating the effect of climate change on water temperature, we also gauged the potential future efficiency of lake sediments in storing C.

The results demonstrate that OC mineralization in sediments dominates three-fold over OC burial when observed at a whole-basin and annual scale. The contribution of sediment OC mineralization to annual C emission from the assessed study lake was, however, found to be small (16%), when compared to OC mineralization in the water column (37%) and catchment import of C (47%). Furthermore, C emission from headwater streams was found to dominate greatly over the lake C emission, mainly triggered by the higher gas transfer velocity of streams compared to lakes.

On a long-term (Holocene) scale, the continuous OC burial flux results in a large amount of C stored in sediments. The temporal variability of this OC accumulation was found to vary across lakes, with, however, time-dependent patterns: On a millennial scale, smaller lakes exhibited a higher variability than larger lakes of the study area. For the last century, similar variability and a trend to increased OC accumulation was found for most study lakes, irrespective of their size. Analysis of lignin phenols in the accumulated OC did not indicated post-depositional degradation, independent of the age of the sediment OC, implying that sediments are a very stable sink for land-derived OC in boreal lakes.

Simulation of warming water temperatures in boreal lakes resulted in declines of the OC burial efficiency BE (OCBE; OC burial/OCdeposition) up to 16%, depending, however, on basin morphometry. Predicted declines in OCBE were higher for the more shallow lake compared to the deeper lake.

In conclusion, this thesis illustrates that sediments play, despite a small quantitative impact on aquatic C cycling, an important role as a very stable C sink in boreal lakes. However, the efficiency of this C sink is likely to be reduced in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 42 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1279
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261157 (URN)978-91-554-9318-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Ekmans salen, Norbyvägen, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2015-10-01
2. Gas Exchange over Aquatic Interfaces and its Importance for Greenhouse Gas Emission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas Exchange over Aquatic Interfaces and its Importance for Greenhouse Gas Emission
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aquatic ecosystems play a substantial role in global cycling of carbon (C), despite covering only about 4% of the earth surface. They emit large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere, comparable to the amount of C stored annually in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, C can be buried in lake sediments. Headwater systems are located at the interface of the terrestrial and aquatic environment, and are first in line to process terrestrial C and throughout its journey through the aquatic continuum. The uncertainties in global estimates of aquatic GHG emissions are largely related to these headwater systems, as they are highly variable in time and space, and underrepresented in global assessments. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to study GHG exchange between sediment, water and air in headwater systems, from both an ecosystem perspective and at the small scale of physical drivers of gas exchange.

This thesis demonstrates that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from headwater systems, especially streams, was the main pathway of C loss from surface waters from a lake catchment. Of the total aquatic CO2-emission of the catchment, 65% originated from stream systems that covered only 0.1% of the total catchment area. The gas transfer velocity (k) was the main driver of stream CO2-emission, but there was a high variability in k on small spatial scales (meters). This variability may have implications for upscaling GHG emissions, especially when using scaled k estimates. Lake sediments only contributed 16% to total lake C emission, but in reality, sediment C emission is probably even lower because experimentally determined sediment C flux returns high estimates that are biased since artificially induced turbulence enhances C flux rates beyond in-situ conditions. When sediment C flux is estimated in-situ, in natural bottom water turbulence conditions, flux rates were lower than those estimated experimentally.

Conclusively, this thesis shows that GHG emissions from small aquatic ecosystems are dominant over other aquatic C fluxes and that our current knowledge regarding the physical processes controlling gas exchange from different small aquatic systems is limited, implying an inherent uncertainty of GHG emission estimates from small aquatic ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 49 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1457
Keyword
gas exchange, lake, stream, lake sediment, headwaters, carbon dioxide, methane, greenhouse gas emission, carbon, turbulence
National Category
Natural Sciences Ecology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Limnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307792 (URN)978-91-554-9764-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-20, Ekmansalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2016-12-28

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Kokic, JovanaWallin, MarcusChmiel, HannahDenfeld, BlaizeSobek, Sebastian

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