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Level of decontamination after washing textiles at 60°C or 70°C followed by tumble drying
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
2014 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, 24314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Several major outbreaks in healthcare facilities have occurred with the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria. A possible route for dissemination is the hospital textiles and inadequate laundering of them. The aim of this study was to develop an easy-to-use method for simulating the laundering process of hospital textiles, and thereafter apply the method when evaluating the decontaminating efficacy of two different washing temperatures.

METHODS: The laundering process, including tumble drying, took place at two professional laundries. Enterococcus faecium was used as bioindicator.

RESULTS: The results showed that a lowering of the washing temperature from 70°C to 60°C did not affect the decontamination efficacy; the washing cycle alone reduced the number of bacteria with 3-5 log10 CFU, whereas the following tumble drying reduced the bacterial numbers with another 3-4 log10 CFU, yielding the same final result independent of washing temperature. Without tumble drying, there was an obvious risk of adding non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria to the fabric. These bacteria originated from the washing cycle.

CONCLUSION: A simple method to simulate hospital laundering was developed. To save energy, it is possible to use a washing temperature of 60°C, but the washing cycle should be followed by tumble drying, and the whole laundering process needs to be monitored to maintain sufficient textile hygiene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 4, 24314
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246138DOI: 10.3402/iee.v4.24314PubMedID: 25413829OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-246138DiVA: diva2:792032
Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Survival of infectious agents and detection of their resistance and virulence factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survival of infectious agents and detection of their resistance and virulence factors
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the first study, three different transport systems for bacteria were evaluated. The CLSI M40-A guideline was used to monitor the maintenance of both mono- and polymicrobial samples during a simulated transportation at room temperature that lasted 0-48 h. All systems were able to maintain the viability of all organisms for 24 h, but none of them could support all tested species after 48 h.  The most difficult species to recover was Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and in polymicrobial samples overgrowth was an observed problem. The aim of the second study was to study the presence of TSST-1 and three other important toxin genes in invasive isolates of Staphylococcus aureus collected during the years 2000-2012 at two tertiary hospitals. The genes encoding the staphylococcal toxins were detected by PCR, and whole-genome sequencing was used for analyzing the genetic relatedness between isolates. The results showed that the most common toxin was TSST-1, and isolates positive for this toxin exhibited a clear clonality independent of year and hospital. The typical patient was a male aged 55-74 years and with a bone or a joint infection. The third study was a clinical study of the effect of silver-based wound dressings on the bacterial flora in chronic leg ulcers. Phenotypic and genetic silver-resistance were investigated before and after topical silver treatment, by determining the silver nitrate MICs and by detecting sil genes with PCR. The silver-based dressings had a limited effect on primary wound pathogens, and the activity of silver nitrate on S. aureus was mainly bacteriostatic. A silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was identified after only three weeks of treatment, and cephalosporin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were relatively prone to developed silver-resistance after silver exposure in vitro. The last study was undertaken in order to develop an easy-to-use method for simulating the laundering process of hospital textiles, and apply the method when evaluating the decontaminating efficacy of two different washing temperatures. The laundering process took place at professional laundries, and Enterococcus faecium was used as a bioindicator. The results showed that a lowering of the washing temperature from 70°C to 60°C did not affect the decontamination efficacy; the washing cycle alone reduced the number of bacteria with 3-5 log10 CFU, whereas the following tumble drying reduced the bacterial numbers with another 3-4 log10 CFU, yielding the same final result independent of the washing temperature. To ensure that sufficient textile hygiene is maintained, the whole laundering process needs to be monitored. The general conclusion is that all developmental work in the bacterial field requires time and a large strain collection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1098
Keyword
Transportation system; swab; polymicrobial samples; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; bacteremia; exotoxins; Staphylococcus aureus; TSST-1; silver; silver resistance; wound dressing; sil genes; laundry; tumble drying; bacterial decontamination
National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248786 (URN)978-91-554-9232-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-28, Hörsalen, Klinisk Mikrobiologi, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 17, Ing D1, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-05 Created: 2015-04-08 Last updated: 2015-07-07

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Tano, EvaMelhus, Åsa

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