Additives Increasing the Bone-Forming Potential around Calcium Phosphate Cements: Statin, Strontium and Silicon
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
More than one million people worldwide receive some kind of bone graft each year. Grafts are often needed following bone tumour removal or traumatic fractures to fill voids in the bone and to aid in the healing process. The most common method involves bone transplantation, in which bone tissue is taken from one site to fill the defect in another site. The procedure thus involves two surgeries, which leads to an increased risk of complications. New, synthetic graft materials that can be used to fill defects and minimise the complications associated with bone tissue harvesting are therefore necessary. The synthetic materials available today lack the inherent biological factors of bone that stimulate the bone regeneration process. Much of today’s research concerning synthetic bone graft materials aims to solve this issue and researchers have suggested several different strategies.
The purpose of this thesis is to improve the performance of acidic calcium phosphate cements, which are materials used as synthetic bone grafts. By combining these cements with drugs or ion additives, local delivery could be achieved with the potential to stimulate bone formation. Two different combinations were attempted in this thesis: cement in combination with simvastatin, or cement in combination with strontium halide salts. Both simvastatin and strontium are known to positively affect bone formation. The efficacy of the cements with the additives was evaluated using different bone cell cultures. The results regarding simvastatin showed that the cement’s mechanical property was not affected upon drug loading, and that the drug was released by a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Moreover, results showed that simvastatin stimulated the bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) to produce more bone tissue, while it inhibited bone-degrading cells (osteoclasts) from degrading the cement. These findings suggest that simvastatin could aid in the bone regeneration process in the local area surrounding the cement.
The main purpose of the study using strontium halide salts was to increase the cement’s X-ray contrast, which is a property used to monitor cement during injection. In addition, strontium is believed to positively affect bone cells. The X-ray contrast did increase after the addition of 10 wt% strontium bromide or strontium iodide, while the cell study results did not indicate any significant effects on the bone-forming cells.
In the last section of this thesis, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate bone formation upon treatment with degradation products from synthetic bone grafts. The zebrafish is a small organism with 70 % gene homology to humans; due to its transparency, fast development and ease of handling, it is an interesting model for high-throughput studies. Silicate, which is an ionic degradation product of many different bone substitute materials, was used as a proof-of-concept to visualise bone formation in these fish. The results showed an increased bone formation upon treatment with 0.625 μM silicate ions. The results suggest that this model could be used as a complement to bone cell culture studies in pre-clinical evaluations of the degradation products of bone substitute materials, thus helping researchers to design materials with degradation products that could stimulate bone formation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 69 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1232
Calcium Phosphate Cements, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Monetite, Zebrafish, Simvastatin, Strontium, Silicon
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246289ISBN: 978-91-554-9183-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-246289DiVA: diva2:792716
2015-04-22, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Granja, Pedro, Professor
Karlsson Ott, Marjam, DocentEngqvist, Håkan, Professor
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