uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The GMOC Model: Supporting Development of Systems for Human Control
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. (Future Train Traffic Control)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Train traffic control is a complex task in a dynamic environment. Different actors have to cooperate to meet strong requirements regarding safety, punctuality, capacity utilization, energy consumption, and more. The GMOC model has been developed and utilized in a number of studies in several different areas. This thesis describes GMOC and uses train traffic control as the application area for evaluating its utility.

The GMOC model has its origin in control theory and relates to concepts of dynamic decision making. Human operators in complex, dynamic control environments must have clear goals, reflecting states to reach or to keep a system in. Mental models contain the operator’s knowledge about the task, the process, and the control environment. Systems have to provide observability, means for the operator to observe the system’s states and dynamics, and controllability, allowing the operators to influence the system’s states. GMOC allows us to constructively describe complex environments, focusing on all relevant parts. It can be utilized in user-centred system design to analyse existing systems, and design and evaluate future control systems.

Our application of GMOC shows that automation providing clear observability and sufficient controllability is seen as transparent and most helpful. GMOC also helps us to argue for visualization that rather displays the whole complexity of a process than tries to hide it.

Our studies in train traffic control show that GMOC is useful to analyse complex work situations. We identified the need to introduce a new control strategy improving the traffic plan by supporting planning ahead. Using GMOC, we designed STEG, an interface implementing this strategy. Improvements that have been done to observability helped the operators to develop more adequate mental models, reducing use of cognitive capacity but increasing precision of the operative traffic plans. In order to improve the traffic controllers’ controllability, one needs to introduce and share a real-time traffic plan, and provide the train drivers with up-to-date information on the surrounding traffic. Our studies indicate that driver advisory systems, including such information, reduce the need for traffic re-planning, improve energy consumption, and increase quality and capacity of train traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 158 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1237
Keyword [en]
Human-Computer Interaction, User-Centered Design, Human Control, Train Traffic Control, Usability, System Development, Human Work, Railway Traffic, Rail Human Factors, Mental Models, Situation Awareness
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246719ISBN: 978-91-554-9192-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-246719DiVA: diva2:794826
Public defence
2015-05-04, Room 2446, Polacksbacken, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
KAJTFTTS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-SCP01-GA-2011-285243
Available from: 2015-04-10 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2015-04-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. GMOC: A conceptual model for human control of dynamic systems, applied to train traffic control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GMOC: A conceptual model for human control of dynamic systems, applied to train traffic control
(English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

When developing new control systems and user interfaces for human operators, a deep understanding of their work is essential in order to build support systems that improve important aspects of work, such as safety, efficiency, satisfaction and development of skills. Many methods for analysis of human work exist, but these are often complex and lead to results that do not fully support the design and development process. We introduce GMOC, a conceptual model that contains necessary components to describe and analyse human control work. This model also supports design and development of new control systems, based on identification of problems in the current environment. The GMOC model is discussed in relation to existing theories about human control and design for skilled professionals. Detailed examples of its application to operational train traffic control are presented.

Keyword
human control; process control; operator interfaces; user-centred system development; train traffic control
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction; Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246718 (URN)
Projects
KAJTFuture Train Traffic Control
Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
2. Recognizing complexity: Visualization for skilled professionals in complex work situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recognizing complexity: Visualization for skilled professionals in complex work situations
2013 (English)In: Building Bridges: HCI, Visualization, and Cognitive Ergonomics, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211400 (URN)
Conference
2011 IFIP WG 13.7 Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Visualization, HCIV 2011
Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-22 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
3. Solutions to the problem of inconsistent plans in railway traffic operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solutions to the problem of inconsistent plans in railway traffic operation
2014 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, Vol. 4, no 4, 87-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238660 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2014.10.002 (DOI)
Projects
ONTIMEKAJTFuture Train Traffic Control
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-SCP01–GA–2011-285243
Available from: 2014-11-22 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
4. Analysis of collaboration applied to train drivers and train traffic controllers in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of collaboration applied to train drivers and train traffic controllers in Sweden
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Rail Human Factors: Supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction, London: Taylor & Francis, 2013, 389-398 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Earlier studies of human operators in complex and dynamic work situations have demonstrated the importance of understanding the operator’s goal, mental model, observability, and controllability. Based on this model we have been able to analyse and design control systems and user interfaces supporting efficient control and high situation awareness. We now extended this model to include collaboration between different actors in complex control environments. This paper describes basic elements of the model, extension to collaboration, and its application to understand important problems and prerequisites for development of control systems in train traffic control in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Human Control, Collaboration, Railway Traffic, GMOC
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196294 (URN)000328455900041 ()978-1-138-00037-7 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Rail Human Factors; March 5-7, 2013, London, UK
Projects
Future Train Traffic Control
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-SCP01–GA–2011-285243
Available from: 2014-03-15 Created: 2013-03-06 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
5. Designing train driver advisory systems for situation awareness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing train driver advisory systems for situation awareness
2013 (English)In: Rail Human Factors: Supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction, London: Taylor & Francis, 2013, 150-159 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During the past decade, train Driver Advisory Systems (DAS) have been an emerging topic. Many projects have been started with the goal to increase punctuality and decrease energy consumption. We found that many systems provide too little information, e.g. only a speed advice, and thus do neither improve drivers’ skills nor their Situation Awareness (SA) of the traffic situation. In collaboration with train drivers, we developed key concepts for future DAS. This paper discusses today’s problems and principles to solve them. We explain how SA can be supported and how this can improve overall quality of train traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Situation Awareness, Driver Advisory Systems, Train Driver, Eco-Driving
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196983 (URN)000328455900016 ()978-1-138-00037-7 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Rail Human Factors; March 5-7, 2013, London, UK
Projects
Future Train Traffic Control
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7 SCP01 GA 2011-285243
Available from: 2014-03-15 Created: 2013-03-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1238 kB)433 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1238 kBChecksum SHA-512
58c9a7d72b574851f9eb14f0019844db690160c57648e98dfa7a7776aee6da452c4198345804bfba0ce5bbbbef904fad1f269be437c2444960588fbec660984d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Authority records BETA

Tschirner, Simon

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Tschirner, Simon
By organisation
Division of Visual Information and InteractionComputerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction
Human Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 433 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 3350 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf