uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Aspects of Bacterial Resistance to Silver
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has increased rapidly within recent years, and it has become a serious threat to public health. Infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria entail higher morbidity, mortality, and a burden to health care systems. The use of biocides, including silver compounds, may affect the resistance to both biocides and antibiotics and, thereby, can be a driving factor in this development.

The aim of the following thesis was to investigate the frequency of silver resistance and the effects of silver exposure on bacterial populations being of clinical significance and from geographically different parts of the world. Furthermore, it explored the genetic background of silver resistance, and if silver could select directly or indirectly for antibiotic resistance.

By a range of methods, from culture in broth to whole genome sequencing, bacterial populations from humans, birds and from the environment were characterized.

The studies showed that sil genes, encoding silver resistance, occurred at a high frequency. Sil genes were found in 48 % of Enterobacter spp., in 41 % of Klebsiella spp. and in 21 % of all human Escherichia coli isolates with production of certain types of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15). In contrast, silver resistance was not found in bird isolates or in bacterial species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp., with wet environments as their natural habitat. One silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was isolated from a chronic leg ulcer after only three weeks of treatment with silver-based dressings. The in-vivo effects of these dressings were limited, and they failed to eradicate both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The activity of silver nitrate in vitro was bacteriostatic on Gram-positive species such as S. aureus and bactericidal on Gram-negative species. In Enterobacteriaceae, sil genes were associated with silver resistance phenotypes in all but one case. Using whole genome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the silS gene were discovered after silver exposure in isolates with expressed silver resistance. This resistance could co-select for resistance to beta-lactams, co-trimoxazole and gentamicin.

The findings of this thesis indicate that silver exposure may cause phenotypic silver resistance, and it may reduce the susceptibility to mainly beta-lactams and select for bacteria with resistance to clinically important antibiotics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 64 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1084
Keyword [en]
Antimicrobial resistance, Silver resistance
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Bacteriology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247472ISBN: 978-91-554-9205-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-247472DiVA: diva2:796254
Public defence
2015-05-08, Hörsal, Department of clinical microbiology, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 17, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-03-18 Last updated: 2015-04-17
List of papers
1. Effects of Silver-based Wound Dressings on the Bacterial Flora in Chronic Leg Ulcers and Its Susceptibility In vitro to Silver
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Silver-based Wound Dressings on the Bacterial Flora in Chronic Leg Ulcers and Its Susceptibility In vitro to Silver
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 92, no 1, 34-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silver-based dressings have been used extensively in wound management in recent years, but data on their antimicrobial activity in the clinical setting are limited. In order to explore their effects on chronic leg ulcer flora, 14 ulcers were cultured after at least 3 weeks treatment with Aquacel Ag (R) or Acticoat (R). Phenotypic and genetic silver resistance were investigated in a total of 56 isolates. Silver-based dressings had a limited effect on primary wound pathogens, which were present in 79% of the cultures before, and 71% after, treatment. One silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was identified (silver nitrate minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)>512 mg/l, positive for silE, silS and silP). Further studies in vitro showed that inducible silver-resistance was more frequent in Enterobacteriaceae with cephalosporin-resistance and that silver nitrate had mainly a bacteriostatic effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Monitoring of silver resistance should be considered in areas where silver is used extensively.

Keyword
silver, silver-resistance, wound dressing, ESBL, derepressed mutant
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171444 (URN)10.2340/00015555-1170 (DOI)000300388400007 ()
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Silver resistance genes are overrepresented among Escherichia coli isolates with CTX-M production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silver resistance genes are overrepresented among Escherichia coli isolates with CTX-M production
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 80, no 22, 6863-6869 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Members of the Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type have disseminated rapidly in recent years and have become a threat to public health. In parallel with the CTX-M type expansion, the consumption and widespread use of silver-containing products has increased. To determine the carriage rates of silver resistance genes in different Escherichia coli populations, the presence of three silver resistance genes (silE, silP, and silS) and genes encoding CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-type enzymes were explored in E. coli isolates of human (n = 105) and avian (n = 111) origin. The antibiotic profiles were also determined. Isolates harboring CTX-M genes were further characterized, and phenotypic silver resistance was examined. The silE gene was present in 13 of the isolates. All of them were of human origin. Eleven of these isolates harbored ESBLs of the CTX-M type (P = 0.007), and eight of them were typed as CTX-M-15 and three as CTX-M-14. None of the silE-positive isolates was related to the O25b-ST131 clone, but 10 out of 13 belonged to the ST10 or ST58 complexes. Phenotypic silver resistance (silver nitrate MIC > 512 mg/liter) was observed after silver exposure in 12 of them, and a concomitant reduced susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam developed in three. In conclusion, 12% of the human E. coli isolates but none of the avian isolates harbored silver resistance genes. This indicates another route for or level of silver exposure for humans than that caused by common environmental contamination. Since silE-positive isolates were significantly more often found in CTX-M-positive isolates, it is possible that silver may exert a selective pressure on CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates.

National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237453 (URN)10.1128/AEM.01803-14 (DOI)000344161700002 ()25128339 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. High carriage rate of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Chinese preschool children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High carriage rate of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Chinese preschool children
Show others...
2015 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247256 (URN)
Available from: 2015-03-16 Created: 2015-03-16 Last updated: 2015-04-17Bibliographically approved
4. High frequency of silver resistance in invasive isolates belonging to genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High frequency of silver resistance in invasive isolates belonging to genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
antibiotic resistance, silver resistance, Enterobacter, Klebsiella
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Bacteriology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247255 (URN)
Available from: 2015-03-16 Created: 2015-03-16 Last updated: 2015-04-17

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1411 kB)4403 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1411 kBChecksum SHA-512
986afade2f1980cd00e06d963458eefb04f15988c0c938298f0236ea57bd6b8565245088927a41c61d33414ebe4a242785600a50b20862dfee1a39f63b7733d4
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

By organisation
Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine
Infectious Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 4403 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2407 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf