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Silicon nitride for total hip replacements
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For more than 50 years total hip replacements have been a common and successful procedure to increase patient mobility and quality of life. The 10-year implant survival rate is 97.8%. However, for longer implantation times there are limitations linked to the negative biological response to wear and corrosion products from the currently used biomaterials.

In this thesis silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings were evaluated for use in total hip replacements, on the articulating bearing surface and modular taper connections. Homogeneous, dense SiNx coatings were deposited using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) up to a thickness of 8 µm. The N/Si atomic ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 and the coatings showed a low surface roughness. The wear rate of a SiNx coated cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) was similar to that of bulk Si3N4, and less than one 46th of uncoated CoCrMo, an alloy that is commonly used in joint replacements. Wear debris generated from SiNx coatings was round in shape, with a mean size of 40 nm, and ranged between 10 and 500 nm. Model particles, similar in size and shape as the wear debris, were soluble in simulated body fluid. The dissolution rate was higher than the expected rate of debris generation. Along with the size of the debris, which is not in the critical range for macrophage activation, this dissolution may limit negative biological reactions. The SiNx coatings also dissolved in simulated body fluid. The coating with the highest N/Si ratio exhibited the lowest dissolution rate, of 0.2 to 0.4 nm/day, while CoCrMo under the same condition dissolved at a rate of 0.7 to 1.2 nm/day. SiNx-coated CoCrMo exhibited a reduced release of Co, Cr and Mo ions into the solution by two orders of magnitude, compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Si3N4 evaluated under micro-displacement in a corrosive environment, replicating the modular taper, showed a lower corrosion current compared to common biomedical alloys. SiNx coatings may also act beneficially to reduce issues associated with this type of contact.

SiNx coatings have shown several properties in a laboratory environment that are hypothesised to increase the longevity of joint replacements. The promising results encourage further evaluation closer to the clinical application of total hip replacements, in particular in the articulating bearing surface and in modular tapers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 53 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1242
Keyword [en]
SiNx, Si3N4, coatings, CoCr, Ti, alloy, tribology, wear, corrosion, dissolution, debris, hip, arthroplasty
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247800ISBN: 978-91-554-9211-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-247800DiVA: diva2:797505
Public defence
2015-05-22, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477
Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2015-07-07
List of papers
1. Fabrication and evaluation of SixNy coatings for total joint replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication and evaluation of SixNy coatings for total joint replacements
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2012 (English)In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 23, no 8, 1879-1889 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wear particles from the bearing surfaces of joint implants are one of the main limiting factors for total implant longevity. Si3N4 is a potential wear resistant alternative for total joint replacements. In this study, SixNy-coatings were deposited on cobalt chromium-discs and Si-wafers by a physical vapour deposition process. The tribological properties, as well as surface appearance, chemical composition, phase composition, structure and hardness of these coatings were analysed. The coatings were found to be amorphous or nanocrystalline, with a hardness and coefficient of friction against Si3N4 similar to that found for bulk Si3N4. The low wear rate of the coatings indicates that they have a potential as bearing surfaces of joint replacements. The adhesion to the substrates remains to be improved.

National Category
Materials Engineering Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry; Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156798 (URN)10.1007/s10856-012-4625-3 (DOI)000306586900005 ()
Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Structure and composition of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitridecoatings for joint replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure and composition of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitridecoatings for joint replacements
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2013 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 235, 827-834 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Silicon nitride coating; Silicon carbon nitride coating; High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS); Total joint replacements; Microstructure
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211520 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.09.008 (DOI)000329596100105 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements
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2013 (English)In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 25, 41-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10-15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places higher demands on the longevity of the implants. A wear resistant configuration with wear particles that resorb in vivo can potentially increase the lifetime of an implant. In this study, silicon nitride (SixNy) and silicon carbon nitride (SixCyNz) coatings were produced for this purpose using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings are intended for hard bearing surfaces on implants. Hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings were evaluated by nanoindentation, cohesive, and adhesive properties were assessed by micro-scratching and the tribological performance was investigated in a ball-on-disc setup run in a serum solution. The majority of the SixNy coatings showed a hardness close to that of sintered silicon nitride (similar to 18 GPa), and an elastic modulus close to that of cobalt chromium (similar to 200 GPa). Furthermore, all except one of the SixNy coatings offered a wear resistance similar to that of bulk silicon nitride and significantly higher than that of cobalt chromium. In contrast, the SixCyNz coatings did not show as high level of wear resistance. 

Keyword
Silicon nitride, Silicon carbon nitride, Coatings, Total joint replacements, Biotribology
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204818 (URN)10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.05.002 (DOI)000321469300005 ()
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Morphology and dissolution rate of wear debris from silicon nitride coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphology and dissolution rate of wear debris from silicon nitride coatings
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2016 (English)In: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 2, no 6, 998-1004 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings have recentlY been introduced as a potential material for joint implant bearing surfaces, but there is no data on wear debri morphology nor their dissolution rate, something that could play a central role to implant longevity. In this study, wear debris was generated in a ball-on-disc setup in simulated body fluid. After serum digestion the debris was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle dissolution rate was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma techniques, on model SiNx particlEs. The wear debris from SiNx coatings was found to be round, in the nm range and formed agglomerates in the submicrometer to micrometer range. Model particles dissolved in simulated body fluid at a rate of: c(t) = 39.45[1 - exp(-1.11 X 10(-6) t], where [c(t)] = mg/L and [t] = s. This study can be used as a preliminary prediction of size, shape, and dissolution rate of wear debris from SiNx coatings.

Keyword
wear, debris, silicon nitride, coatings, hip joint replacement, dissolution, particles
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247793 (URN)10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00133 (DOI)000377925300013 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477
Note

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in [JournalTitle], copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by t he publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00133

Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
5. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements
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2016 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 62, 497-505 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the dissolution rate of SiNx coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiNx coatings with N/Si ratios of 03, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiNx coatings was evaluated to 0.2-1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7-1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si-N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si-N and/or Si-Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si-O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiNx coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiNx coatings for joint replacements

Keyword
silicon nitride, cobalt chromium, coatings, dissolution, corrosion, mass loss, rate
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247794 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2016.01.049 (DOI)000372759100062 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477Carl Tryggers foundation , CTS 14:431
Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
6. Fretting behaviour of silicon nitride against biomedical alloys for joint replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fretting behaviour of silicon nitride against biomedical alloys for joint replacements
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
fretting, corrosion, Si3N4, CoCr, Ti-6Al-4V, total joint replacements, CoM, taper, biotribology, hip
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247795 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477
Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2015-07-07

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