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Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0892-3358
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
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2015 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, no 12, article id 123026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe the plasma simultaneously along vertical and oblique lines of sight. Parameters of the fast ion energy distribution, such as the high energy cut-off of the deuteron distribution function and the RF coupling constant, are determined from data within a uniform analysis framework for neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy based on a one-dimensional model and by a consistency check among the individual measurement techniques. A systematic difference is seen between the two lines of sight and is interpreted to originate from the sensitivity of the oblique detectors to the pitch-angle structure of the distribution around the resonance, which is not correctly portrayed within the adopted one dimensional model. A framework to calculate neutron and gamma-ray emission from a spatially resolved, two-dimensional deuteron distribution specified by energy/pitch is thus developed and used for a first comparison with predictions from ab initio models of RF heating at multiple harmonics.

The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the development of advanced diagnostic techniques for MeV range ions in high performance fusion plasmas, with applications to the experimental validation of RF heating codes and, more generally, to studies of the energy distribution of ions in the MeV range in high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 55, no 12, article id 123026
Keyword [en]
fusion, tokamak, fast ions, neutron spectrometry, gamma-ray spectroscopy
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Applied Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247990DOI: 10.1088/0029-5515/55/12/123026ISI: 000366534500028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-247990DiVA, id: diva2:798090
Available from: 2015-03-25 Created: 2015-03-25 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Neutron Emission Spectrometry for Fusion Reactor Diagnosis: Method Development and Data Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neutron Emission Spectrometry for Fusion Reactor Diagnosis: Method Development and Data Analysis
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is possible to obtain information about various properties of the fuel ions deuterium (D) and tritium (T) in a fusion plasma by measuring the neutron emission from the plasma. Neutrons are produced in fusion reactions between the fuel ions, which means that the intensity and energy spectrum of the emitted neutrons are related to the densities and velocity distributions of these ions.

This thesis describes different methods for analyzing data from fusion neutron measurements. The main focus is on neutron spectrometry measurements, using data used collected at the tokamak fusion reactor JET in England. Several neutron spectrometers are installed at JET, including the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR and the magnetic proton recoil (MPRu) spectrometer.

Part of the work is concerned with the calculation of neutron spectra from given fuel ion distributions. Most fusion reactions of interest – such as the D + T and D + D reactions – have two particles in the final state, but there are also examples where three particles are produced, e.g. in the T + T reaction. Both two- and three-body reactions are considered in this thesis. A method for including the finite Larmor radii of the fuel ions in the spectrum calculation is also developed. This effect was seen to significantly affect the shape of the measured TOFOR spectrum for a plasma scenario utilizing ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in combination with neutral beam injection (NBI).

Using the capability to calculate neutron spectra, it is possible to set up different parametric models of the neutron emission for various plasma scenarios. In this thesis, such models are used to estimate the fuel ion density in NBI heated plasmas and the fast D distribution in plasmas with ICRH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. p. 92
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1244
Keyword
fusion, plasma diagnostics, neutron spectrometry, TOFOR, MPRu, tokamak, JET, fast ions, fuel ion density, relativistic kinematics
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Applied Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247994 (URN)978-91-554-9217-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-03-25 Last updated: 2018-04-23
2. Liquid scintillators as neutron diagnostic tools for fusion plasmas: System characterization and data analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid scintillators as neutron diagnostic tools for fusion plasmas: System characterization and data analysis
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The neutrons produced in fusion devices carry information about various properties of the ions that are reacting in the machine. Measurements of the neutron flux and energy distribution can therefore be used to study the behaviour of the plasma ions under different experimental conditions.

Several neutron detection techniques are available, each having advantages and disadvantages compared to the others. In this thesis we study neutron measurements performed with NE213 liquid scintillators. One advantage of NE213s compared to other neutron detection techniques is that they are simple to use, small and cheap. On the other hand, their response to neutrons makes the extraction of information about the neutron energy less precise.

In the thesis we present the development of methods for the characterization and the data analysis of NE213 detectors. The work was performed using two instruments installed at the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak in the UK: the “Afterburner” detector, which is an NE213 installed on a tangential line of sight, and the neutron camera, which is a system composed of 19 NE213 detectors installed on different lines of sight (10 horizontal and 9 vertical).The analysis of data from the Afterburner detector was focused on resolving different features of the neutron energy spectra which are related to different properties of the ion velocity distribution.

The analysis of data from the neutron camera was directed towards the investigation of the spatial distribution of ions in the plasma. However, the individual characterization of the camera detectors allowed the inclusion of information about the energy distribution of the ions in the analysis.

The outcomes of the studies performed indicate that the methods developed give reliable results and can therefore be applied to extract information about the plasma ions. In particular, the possibility of performing neutron emission spectroscopy analysis in each line of sight of a neutron camera is of great value for future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 87
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1646
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345983 (URN)978-91-513-0275-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-04, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-11

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Eriksson, JacobBinda, FedericoConroy, SeanEricsson, GöranHellesen, CarlHjalmarsson, AndersSkiba, MateuszWeiszflog, Matthias

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