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Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
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2015 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, 93-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

METHODS: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

RESULTS: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 75, 93-102 p.
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248607DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.008ISI: 000348746600009PubMedID: 25461418OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-248607DiVA: diva2:800201
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Patterns: Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Patterns: Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We eat foods not nutrients. What is more, we eat them in combinations. Consequently, capturing our complex food habits is likely an advantage in nutrition research. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to investigate dietary patterns in the Swedish population –nutrient intakes, nutritional biomarkers and health aspects.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the developed world. However, the impact of dietary factors on disease risk is largely unknown. In Study I we investigated the association between a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern and prostate cancer risk, in a cohort of elderly Swedish men. The latter (but not the former) was associated, inversely, with prostate cancer risk when taking validity in food records into account.

Diet is one of our main exposure routes to environmental contaminants. Hence, such exposure could act as a mediating factor in the relation between diet and health. In Study II we investigated the association between; a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern, as well as the official dietary recommendations, and circulating levels of environmental contaminants, in an elderly Swedish population. The first two patterns were positively related to levels of both persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, whilst the dietary recommendations were inversely associated to dioxin and lead.

Finally, although dietary patterns are likely to influence health, little is known about current dietary patterns in Sweden. In Study III we used a data-reduction method to identify dietary patterns in a nationwide sample of the Swedish population. Two major patterns were derived; a Healthy pattern of foods generally considered healthy (e.g. vegetables, fruits, fish and vegetable-oils) and a Swedish traditional pattern (with e.g. meats, potatoes, sauces, non-Keyhole milk-products, sweet-bakery products and margarine). Derived patterns were associated to population characteristics and the Healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated to anthropometric variables in Study IV. Dietary characteristics of the patterns were well reflected in correlations to nutrient intake and (to a lesser extent) in nutritional biomarkers.

In conclusion dietary patterns for overall health should be considered, as well as other lifestyle-factors, when interpreting results in nutrition epidemiology and establishing dietary recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1104
Keyword
Dietary Pattern, Dietary Recommendations, Dietary Survey, Environmental Contaminants, Healthy Diet Indicator, Heatlhy dietary pattern, Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean diet, Nutritional Biomarkers, Obesity, Overweight, Principal Component Analysis, Prostate Cancer, Sweden, Traditional dietary pattern
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science; Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-250280 (URN)978-91-554-9242-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-04, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved

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Ax, ErikaLampa, ErikLind, LarsSalihovic, SamiraCederholm, TommySjögren, PerLind, P Monica

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