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Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Asociación para el Desarrollo Económico y Social de El Espino (APRODESE).
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). (Internationell barnhälsa och nutrition)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
2016 (English)In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, ISSN 1740-8695, E-ISSN 1740-8709, Vol. 12, no 1, 164-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 12, no 1, 164-176 p.
Keyword [en]
breastfeeding; complementary feeding; dietary diversity; meal frequency; Nicaragua; snacking
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248687DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12144ISI: 000369946300014PubMedID: 25134722OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-248687DiVA: diva2:800727
Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Child nutrition in rural Nicaragua: Population-based studies in a transitional society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child nutrition in rural Nicaragua: Population-based studies in a transitional society
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emerging favourable as well as unfavourable nutrition patterns are observed in societies undergoing rapid social and economic change. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the associations between household and maternal resources and infant and young child feeding habits and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua, a low-income transitional society.

All households (n=1,500) in Los Cuatro Santos with at least one child (0-3 y) were visited to collect information on feeding of the youngest child. Children´s anthropometry was also measured using standardised World Health Organisation (WHO) techniques. Validated instruments were used to assess household and maternal resources. All instruments had been adapted to the local context and piloted in a nearby community. 

The education of the mother showed more independent variation in the studied outcomes. The odds for exclusive breastfeeding were highest in infants aged 0 to 5 months of mothers with the lowest education. Further, children aged 6 to 35 months with lowest educated mothers were less likely to consume highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). They were also less likely to be exposed to a double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent unmet WHO recommended feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks or SSBs). However, children aged 6 to 35 months were more prone to infrequently meet dietary diversity and to more shortness. Children in the same age group with lower educated mothers were also shorter in households with the lowest housing quality.

Higher level of maternal education contributed both favourably and unfavourably to child feeding and nutrition. This was reflected in more and less frequent practice of the WHO feeding indicators, but also in more frequent children´s consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Higher maternal education was associated with taller children, even in households with the lowest housing quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 65 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1097
Keyword
autonomy, education, feeding practices, food security, nutritional status, social support
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248702 (URN)978-91-554-9230-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-27, Rosénsalen, Entrance 95/96 NB, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2008-079
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2015-07-07

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Contreras, MarielaPersson, Lars-ÅkeEkström, Eva-Charlotte

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