A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Lenalidomide in Combination with Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Purpose Lenalidomide have both immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties which could confer anti-cancer effects. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of combining lenalidomide with the standard treatment gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer patients with advanced disease. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Patients received lenalidomide days 1-21 orally and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously (days 1, 8 and 15), each 28 day cycle. Three cohorts of lenalidomide were examined (Cohort I = 15 mg, Cohort II = 20 mg and Cohort III = 25 mg daily). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide given in combination with gemcitabine was defined as the highest dose level at which no more than one out of four (25%) subjects experiences a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Patients should also be able to receive daily low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (e.g. dalteparin 5000 IU s.c. daily) as a prophylactic anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). Twelve patients (n = 4, n = 3 and n = 5 in cohort I, II and III, respectively) were enrolled in this study. Results Median duration of treatment was 11 weeks (range 1-66), and median number of treatment cycles were three (range 1-14). The only DLT was a cardiac failure grade 3 in cohort III. Frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (all grades) included neutropenia, leucopenia and fatigue (83% each, but there was no febrile neutropenia); thrombocytopenia (75%); dermatological toxicity (75%); diarrhea and nausea (42% each); and neuropathy (42%). Discussion This phase I study demonstrates the feasibility of the combination of lenalidomide and gemcitabine as first-line treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The tolerability profile demonstrated in the dose escalation schedule of lenalidomide suggests the dosing of lenalidomide to be 25 mg daily on days 1-21 with standard dosing of gemcitabine and merits further evaluation in a phase II trial.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 10, no 4
Cancer and Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252177DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121197ISI: 000352139000041PubMedID: 25837499OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-252177DiVA: diva2:810162