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Recovery After Potential-Induced Degradation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar Cells With CdS and Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 5, no 2, 664-669 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study deals with potential-induced degradation (PID) of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2-based solar cells and different approaches to subsequent recovery of efficiency. Three different recovery methods were studied: 1) etch recovery, 2) accelerated recovery, and 3) unaccelerated recovery. After being completely degraded, the solar cells with CdS buffer layers recovered their efficiencies at different rates, depending on the method which was used. On the other hand, if Zn(O,S) was used as a buffer layer instead of CdS, the recovery rate was close to zero. The buffer layer type clearly influenced the sodium distribution during PID stressing and recovery, as well as the possibilities for recovery of the electrical performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 5, no 2, 664-669 p.
Keyword [en]
Buffer layer, Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS), potential-induced degradation (PID), thin-film solar cells
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253087DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2384839ISI: 000353524800028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-253087DiVA: diva2:815971
Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Potential-Induced Degradation and possibilities for recovery of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin film solar cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential-Induced Degradation and possibilities for recovery of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin film solar cells
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The long-term performance of solar modules is of key importance to achieve profitable solar power installations. In this work, the degradation mechanism potential-induced degradation (PID) was investigated for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells. PID is caused by a combination of certain system voltage situations and environment conditions, such as temperature and humidity. The conditions for PID were reproduced in the lab, using small test cells. A voltage was applied between the solar cell back contact and the rear side of the glass substrate while heating the samples to a temperature of 85°C.

Similar to crystalline silicon technology, CIGS solar cells were found to be susceptible to PID. One critical parameter for the degradation behavior is the choice of substrate and its ability to release Na during applied bias. The degradation was found to be linked with Na migration from the substrate into the devices. Solar cells, which were fully deteriorated in terms of electrical performance by PID, were found to have a substantially increased Na concentration. However, solar cells grown on Na free and high resistivity substrates were observed to be PID-resilient.

The degradation was shown to partly be non-permanent. Fully degraded CIGS solar cells could recover electrical performance to a certain degree. Three different recovery methods were applied (i) a passive recovery in darkness at room temperature, (ii) accelerated recovery with a reversed bias as compared to the PID treatment and (iii) etching and replacement of the top window layers followed by reversed bias. Recovery to over 90% of the initial efficiency was possible. However, the recovery rate varied depending on the recovery method. The accelerated method was found to reduce the concentration of Na in the buffer layer and interface volumes. The etch recovery method, which consists of renewing window and buffer layers further strengthen the hypothesis that a major part of the degradation could be attributed to the buffer layer and its interface to CIGS.

The importance of the buffer layer in PID was further highlighted in the experiment where the standard CdS buffer layer was substituted with Zn(O,S). Both types of solar cells degrade in the PID conditions. Zn(O,S) cells exhibited ohmic current-voltage relationship (no diode characteristics) in the degraded state, while the CdS counterpart had some degree of diode behavior. During recovery with the accelerated method, the CdS cells restored both current-voltage and capacitance-voltage behavior to larger extent than the Zn(O,S) cells. For the latter, the efficiency stayed close to zero throughout the recovery period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265141 (URN)
Presentation
2015-09-28, Å80121, Ångströmlaboratoriet, 15:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-30 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved

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Fjällström, ViktorSzaniawski, PiotrVermang, BartRostvall, FredrikZimmermann, UweEdoff, Marika

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