Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
Since 2009 thousands of Eritreans, as well as other, sub-Saharan migrants have become
victims of human trafficking in the Sinai Peninsula.
These occurrences are linked to the newly
coined notion of “Sinai Trafficking” which has been labeled as a new form of human
trafficking. According to reports, released or escaped victims have disclosed information
regarding collusion between traffickers and Egyptian security forces. Further, there have been
reports that trafficking victims from the Sinai are put in detention centers, prisons and police
stations in Egypt and are often charged or prosecuted for crimes committed in their capacity
as victims of trafficking.
Although Egypt is bound to respect and uphold its international law
obligations national criminal law concerning human trafficking, the continuation of the
situation in Sinai has demonstrated an unwillingness or inability to prevent, suppress and
punish the crime. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis is to examine and interpret
international law as well as Egypt’s national criminal legislation and policies, pertaining to
human trafficking, to determine if there are any inadequacies or gaps in the international legal
framework with regards to human trafficking or if it’s rather Egypt’s implementation of the
law that is faulty. Moreover, a human rights perspective, relevant theories, literature related to
the conceptual framework of human trafficking, the status and treatment of non-nationals and
securitization of migration will be applied.
With regards to the international law on human trafficking, it has been assessed that
there are some inadequacies in relation to protection and support granted to trafficking
victims. Egypt, has adopted relevant international instruments concerning human trafficking.
Further, Egypt has enacted national legislation that corresponds to the Anti-Trafficking
Protocol, which might indicate that it is not Egypt’s national legislation that is inadequate
and rather that the international law concerning human trafficking.
Increasingly restrictive immigration laws, policies and States conduct towards migrants
indicate that migration has been securitized. The Egyptian authorities conduct and
approach towards migrants could indicate that Egypt has securitized the migration issue.
Further, the difficulty to distinguish smuggled migrants from trafficking victims could result
in the possibility of trafficking victims being criminalized. The world of today remains
globalized and thus the political order that follows and its accompanying conceptual and
subsequent legal framework of human trafficking as an organized crime contributes to the
trafficking situation in Sinai as well as to human trafficking in general.
2015. , 76 p.
human trafficking, Sinai, Egypt, ransom, extortion, securitization, Arendt, conceptual framework