A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system
2015 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 86, no 4, 044101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N-2 environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible. (C) 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 86, no 4, 044101
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255308DOI: 10.1063/1.4916209ISI: 000353837700037PubMedID: 25933870OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-255308DiVA: diva2:822432
FunderSwedish Research Council, 2012-4681EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608575