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Falu gruva och hållbar utveckling
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2015 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Falu Copper Mine and Sustainable Development

Karl-Markus Ansnaes

Falu copper mine was Sweden’s oldest mine industry which lasted for almost a thousand years. Throughout the history its area has been vastly contaminated by sulfur oxide. The contaminations has created the mining area to an environmental risk zone which has the ability to spread out into the Falu River. The river has its connections to the Dal River which is discharging towards its mouth in the Baltic Sea. In the year 1968 the first measurement from the polluted Falu River took place. Its metal content came from the mining area, although the decontamination expenses were too high for the running company Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB to pay which then led to conflicts with the Environmental Protection Agency of Sweden on terms none of them could agree on. It was not until the year 1983 when they both agreed on a cooperation which contained of continuing measurements until a suffi-cient decontamination method could be applied. The cooperation was named Projekt Falu gruva. The first obligation was to improve the sewage plant in Främby by con-necting the contaminated water from the mining area with the waste water though a chemical treatment. In the year 1987 the treatment successfully began and the same year the Swedish government financed a delegation, called Dalälvsdelegationen, and its purpose was to decontaminate the pollutions along the Dal River. The delegation’s research led to three reports which contained the areas involved in the river’s pollu-tion as well how the mining area would be treated. In 1992 the Country Administra-tive Board of Dalarna, the Environmental Authority of Falun Municipality, the Environ-mental Protection Agency of Sweden and Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB began cooperation in order to treat the polluted area of Falu copper mine. This cooperation became a project called Faluprojektet. The project consisted of three decontamina-tion priorities with different treatments in the area. The first decontamination priority resulted in a reducing amount of the polluted mining water by 80 % in the Falu River. The second and the third decontamination priorities had some issues during its treat-ment due to new environmental laws influenced in 1999 and the recognition from UNESCO as this area was since 2001 a world cultural heritage. Both the law and the recognition stated that it was forbidden to remove the waste on the ground from the area since it was a part of the cultural protection. This meant the waste was removed closer to the mine pit and became part of a slower and natural hydrological treatment which caused the sulfur dioxide penetrating into the ground. By doing this type pf treatment it reflects upon the environmental quality goals which Sweden is aiming for in order to reach for sustainable development.

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Falu gruva och hållbar utveckling

Karl-Markus Ansnaes

Falu gruva var Sveriges äldsta gruvverksamhet i nästan 1000 års tid och har genom historien förorenat platsen med höga halter av svaveldioxid. De höga halterna har omvandlat Falu gruvas område till en miljöriskzon som omfattar tendensen att sprida sig via Faluåns utlopp till Dalälven och därmed Östersjön. År 1968 utfärdades de första mätningarna på metallhalterna som gruvan förorsakat, men den dåvarande verksamhetsutövaren Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB och Statens Naturvårdsverk kom inte överens om enad kostnadslösningsmetod. Efter många juridiska konflikter pågick till år 1983 då parterna enades om samarbete, som kallades Projekt Falu gruva. Syftet var att genomföra nya mätningar till dess att valet för en kostnads-lösningsmetod kunde åtgärdas. Första åtgärden var att förbättra reningsverket i Främby genom att gruvvattnet från gruvområdet renades med spillvattnet via kemisk rening. År 1987 togs reningsverket i bruk och samma år finansierade regeringen en delegation, Dalälvsdelegationen, med syftet att hantera föroreningarna längs med Dalälven. Delegationen sammanställde sina undersökningar i tre delrapporter som beskrev hur och vilka av Falu gruvas områden som skulle saneras. Tillsammans inrättade Länsstyrelsen i Dalarnas Län, Falu kommuns miljönämnd, Naturvårdsverket och Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB ett samarbete år 1992, som kallades Falu-projektet, med syftet att utföra saneringsåtgärder i området. Saneringarna indelades i tre prioriteringsgrupper och behandlades med olika reningsmetoder. Prioritetsgrupp 1 kunde under sin efterbehandlingsperiod utföras effektivt och mer än 80 % av metall-halterna minskades i Faluån. Prioritetsgrupp 2 och 3 påverkades under sin behand-ling både från nya miljölagar med instiftande av miljöbalken år 1999 och verifierat kulturvärldsarv av UNESCO år 2001. De nya saneringsmetoderna som utfärdas via en naturlig och långvarig process har påverkat att sulfiden från avfallet tvingas trängas ner i marken. Denna metod påverkar Sveriges miljökvalitetsmål som är utsatta i miljöbalken för att hållbar utveckling ska uppnås.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 28 p.
Series
Självständigt arbete vid Institutionen för geovetenskaper, 2015:20
Keyword [sv]
Hållbar utveckling, Falu gruva, Miljöbalken, Efterbehandlingsåtgärder, Sulfiddioxid
National Category
Environmental Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256467OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-256467DiVA: diva2:825518
Educational program
Bachelor Programme in Earth Science
Presentation
2015-06-03, Hambergsalen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala universitet, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:40 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-23 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved

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Environmental SciencesEarth and Related Environmental SciencesGeosciences, Multidisciplinary

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