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Gradient formation in cemented carbides with 85Ni:15Fe-binder phase
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Gradientbildning i hårdmetall med 85Ni:15Fe-bindefas (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

In today’s inserts used for metal cutting the binder phase consists of cobalt (Co).However, EU’s REACH programme and the U.S’s National Toxicity Programme(NTP) classified Co as toxic/carcinogenic. Therefore, there is a strong need toinvestigate alternative binder phases. This thesis covers sintering and characterisationof cemented carbide with a binder phase consisting of nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) withthe composition of 85Ni:15Fe. The aim was to study the gradient formation of turninginsert and find sintering processes to achieve a gradient structure with the targetedthickness of 26 microns.

Simulations in ThermoCalc provided a suitable composition and a starting point forsintering parameters. The influences of sintering process parameters, such as holdingtime, temperature and counter pressure on the formation of the gradient zone wereinvestigated. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) sintering was done in order to study thegradient formation as well as to reduce the porosity when needed. Sintered insertswere analysed by light optical microscopy.

It was found that there are at least three possible ways to control the formation ofthe gradient: sintering in vacuum with a holding time of 20 min at 1450°C, sintering at1450°C with a counter pressure of 5 mbar nitrogen, and sintering with a counterpressure of 11.5 mbar followed by a double sinter-hip with 55 bar argon atmosphere.However, only the last process fulfilled the microstructure criteria in terms ofporosity and binder phase distribution. It is clear that the formation of gradient zonesin 85Ni:15Fe can be predicted, however calculations and simulations need to beoptimized in order to get more accurate results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 40 p.
UPTEC Q, ISSN 1401-5773 ; 15001
Keyword [en]
cemented carbide, alternative binderphase, sintering, gradient, hard metal
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Other Materials Engineering Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Ceramics Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256503OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-256503DiVA: diva2:825981
External cooperation
Sandvik Coromant
Educational program
Master Programme in Materials Engineering
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved

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Composite Science and EngineeringOther Materials EngineeringManufacturing, Surface and Joining TechnologyCeramicsMetallurgy and Metallic Materials

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