uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Diagnostic criteria for malnutrition - An ESPEN Consensus Statement
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 3, 335-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To provide a consensus-based minimum set of criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition to be applied independent of clinical setting and aetiology, and to unify international terminology. Method: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process, encompassing e-mail communications, face-to-face meetings, in group questionnaires and ballots, as well as a ballot for the ESPEN membership. Result: First, ESPEN recommends that subjects at risk of malnutrition are identified by validated screening tools, and should be assessed and treated accordingly. Risk of malnutrition should have its own ICD Code. Second, a unanimous consensus was reached to advocate two options for the diagnosis of malnutrition. Option one requires body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) <18.5 to define malnutrition. Option two requires the combined finding of unintentional weight loss (mandatory) and at least one of either reduced BMI or a low fat free mass index (FFMI). Weight loss could be either >10% of habitual weight indefinite of time, or >5% over 3 months. Reduced BMI is <20 or <22 kg/m(2) in subjects younger and older than 70 years, respectively. Low FFMI is <15 and <17 kg/m(2) in females and males, respectively. About 12% of ESPEN members participated in a ballot; >75% agreed; i.e. indicated >= 7 on a 10-graded scale of acceptance, to this definition. Conclusion: In individuals identified by screening as at risk of malnutrition, the diagnosis of malnutrition should be based on either a low BMI (<18.5 kg/m(2)), or on the combined finding of weight loss together with either reduced BMI (age-specific) or a low FFMI using sex-specific cut-offs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 34, no 3, 335-340 p.
Keyword [en]
Malnutrition, Nutritional assessment, Body composition, Definition, Consensus, Delphi
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256813DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.03.001ISI: 000355034900001PubMedID: 25799486OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-256813DiVA: diva2:827732
Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2015-06-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Cederholm, Tommy
By organisation
Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
In the same journal
Clinical Nutrition
Nutrition and Dietetics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 214 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link