Microglia in neuroregeneration
2001 (English)In: Microscopy research and technique (Print), ISSN 1059-910X, E-ISSN 1097-0029, Vol. 54, no 1, 40-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Microglia has the potential to produce and release a range of factors that directly and/or indirectly promote regeneration in the injured nervous system. The overwhelming evidence indicates, however, that this potential is generally not expressed in vivo. Activated microglia may enhance neuronal degeneration following axotomy, thereby counteracting functional recovery. Microglia does not seem to contribute significantly to axonal outgrowth after peripheral nerve injury, since this process proceeds uneventful even if perineuronal microglia is eliminated. The phagocytic phenotype of microglia is highly suppressed during Wallerian degeneration in the central nervous system. Therefore, microglia is incapable of rapid and efficient removal of myelin debris and its putative growth inhibitory components. In this way, microglia may contribute to regeneration failure in the central nervous system. Structural and temporal correlations are compatible with participation by perineuronal microglia in axotomy-induced shedding of presynaptic terminals, but direct evidence for such participation is lacking. Currently, the most promising case for a promoting effect on neural repair by activated microglia appears to be as a mediator of collateral sprouting, at least in certain brain areas. However, final proof for a critical role of microglia in these instances is still lacking. Results from in vitro studies demonstrate that microglia can develop a regeneration supportive phenotype. Altering the microglial involvement following neural injury from a typically passive or even counterproductive state and into a condition where these cells are actively supporting regeneration and plasticity is, therefore, an exciting challenge and probably a realistic goal.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 54, no 1, 40-46 p.
Axotomy, nerve degeneration, neuroplasticity, synapse, motorneuron, sensory neuron
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-56245DOI: 10.1002/jemt.1119ISI: 000169238000007PubMedID: 11526956OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-56245DiVA: diva2:84153