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Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds - Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir
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2015 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 141, 164-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r(2) >= 0.994), filtration recovery (>= 91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD <= 16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs ( <= 20 ng L-1). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/-20 degrees C ( <= 12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at -20 degrees C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant ( <= 12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 141, 164-169 p.
Keyword [en]
Antivirals, Zanamivir, Online solid phase extraction, Liquid chromatography, ZIC-HILIC, Tandem mass spectrometry
National Category
Chemical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259083DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.03.066ISI: 000356987500026PubMedID: 25966397OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-259083DiVA: diva2:843527
Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-1320
Available from: 2015-07-29 Created: 2015-07-27 Last updated: 2015-10-21Bibliographically approved

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Gillman, AnnaJärhult, Josef
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Department of Medical Biochemistry and MicrobiologyClinical Microbiology and Infectious MedicineInfectious Diseases
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