Molecular mechanisms for activation of non-canonical TGFβ pathways and their importance during prostate cancer progression
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Prostate cancer is the most common invasive cancer diagnosed in men and a major and growing health problem in Western countries. Deregulation of different pathways has been implicated in progression of prostate cancer, namely nuclear factor kappa enhancer binding protein (NF-κB), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), phosphoinositide 3ʹ-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) and Src kinase pathways. However, the detailed mechanisms by which TGFβ activates these pathways to contribute in tumorigenesis and invasive behavior of prostate cancer cells have not been elucidated.
We have demonstrated (paper I) that the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 is crucial for recruitment of the regulatory subunit of PI3K, p85α, to TβRI and for TGFβ-induced Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of p85α. TRAF6 is required for the TGFβ-induced recruitment of AKT to the complex of PI3K and TβRI, where the polyubiquitination and activation of AKT occurs. When activated, AKT promotes TGFβ-induced cell migration which is dependent on p85 and PI3K activity, as well as on TRAF6, but not on TβRI kinase activity. Thus, TGFβ-induced activation of PI3K/AKT induces cell motility contributing to the progression of cancer.
We have demonstrated (paper II) a pivotal role of TAK1 polyubiquitination in three different pathways, including TNFR, IL-1R, and TLR4 signaling. Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TAK1 at Lys34 is essential for downstream signaling to NF-κB-mediated target gene expression in both cancer and immune cells. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the mechanism of activation of NF-κB in inflammation and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat chronic inflammation and cancer.
We have also shown (paper III) that TGFβ activates the tyrosine kinase Src via formation of a complex between TβRI and Src. The E3 ligase TRAF6 promotes the formation of the complex in a manner not dependent on its ubiquitin ligase activity, suggesting that TRAF6 acts as an adaptor. Moreover, the activation of Src is not dependent on the kinase activity of TβRI. On a functional level, Src activity was found to be necessary for TGFβ-induced chemotaxis.
In conclusion, we have elucidated molecular mechanisms whereby TGFβ activates non-Smad pathways, i.e. PI3K and Src. Our findings shed light on the pro-tumorigenesis mechanisms of TGFβ. In addition, we have demonstrated how the activation of TAK1, an important component of the TGFβ non-Smad pathway, by TGFβ and other stimuli leads to the activation of NF-κB and thereby induction of inflammation which likely contributes to prostate cancer progression.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 46 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1126
TGFβ, AKT, PI3K, p85α, TRAF6, TAK1, NF-κB, Src, prostate cancer, PC-3U, cell migration, inflammation
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject Biology with specialization in Molecular Cell Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259224ISBN: 978-91-554-9301-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-259224DiVA: diva2:844384
2015-10-01, B42, Entrance A11, Husargatan 3, Biomedicinskt Centrum, 75124, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Landstöm, MareneHeldin, Carl-Henrik
List of papers