Geographical variation in access to pharmacy services in New Zealand
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Introduction: Geographic proximity to pharmacies is of primary importance in determining access pharmacy services. Limited previous research has shown that variation in access is associated with the demography of local communities. Low access to pharmacies can lead to poor medication adherence, in turn resulting in suboptimal medicines-related outcomes. To extend the research in this area it is desirable to develop a model of geospatial access to pharmacies in New Zealand and to explore the association between access, medication adherence and medication related outcomes.
Aim: To develop a model of geospatial accessibility to community pharmacies in New Zealand and undertake preliminary analyses to explore predictors of disparity in access such as ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
Materials and Methods: Data on the location of premises licensed as pharmacies in New Zealand each July between 2011 - 2014 was mapped by using ArcMAP. GIS network analyses was undertaken to calculate travel time between the centre of each geographical census area unit and nearest pharmacy. Service areas, describing the area covered by nominal travel times, were developed and mapped. Models were made to examine relationships between travel time and community characteristics.
Results: It was found that 94.7 % of the New Zealand population have access to a pharmacy within 15 minutes driving time. Geospatial access is significantly associated with socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and age. Accessibility was found to be higher in urban and the least deprived areas. Māori people have less accessibility compared to the other ethnic groups.
Conclusions: The majority of New Zealanders have high geographical access to pharmacies. Still there are differences in access depending on community characteristics and further studies are needed to explore the association with medication related outcomes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 31 p.
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-260024DiVA: diva2:846039
Master of Science Programme in Pharmacy
Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta, PhD, Professor