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Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: The Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 56, no 4, 458-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n=7), experiential adolescent raters (n=10), and parent raters (n=10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 56, no 4, 458-466 p.
Keyword [en]
Addiction, adolescence, computer gaming, Internet gaming disorder, psychometry, video gaming
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260283DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12196ISI: 000358042800012PubMedID: 25615802OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-260283DiVA: diva2:847776
Note

Funding: Svenska Spel Research Council, The Uppsala and Orebro Regional Research Council, Fredrik and Ingrid Thurings Foundation, the County Council of Vastmanland, Konig-Soderstromska foundation, The Swedish Psychiatric Foundation, and The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS)

Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2016-10-04
In thesis
1. Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aims of this thesis were to develop and evaluate a screening instrument designed to detect gaming addiction symptoms in adolescents, to study associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms, to investigate the stability of problematic gaming, and to examine possible associations between gaming at baseline (W1) with problem gambling three years later (W2).

The study population consisted of adolescents from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland SALVe Cohort (adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, and their parents), in two waves (2012, n = 1887; 2015, n = 1576), and adolescents from child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in Västmanland (2014, n = 242).

The development of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) was based upon the research literature on gaming, gambling, and addiction. An expert panel estimated the content validity of the GAIT and found it to be excellent. Additional psychometric evaluations of the GAIT and the parent version, GAIT-P, were conducted and it was found that both versions showed promising psychometric results, with high internal consistency, high concurrent validity, high concordance, unidimensionality, and high factor loadings, although poor model fit in exploratory factor analysis. Self- and parent-rated prevalence of gaming addiction symptoms were estimated at 1.3% with the GAIT and 2.4% with the GAIT-P in 13- and 15-year-olds.

Self-rated problematic gaming above the cutoff had a boy to girl ratio of approximately 5:1 in both the SALVe Cohort and the clinical sample, whereas more girls than boys reported symptoms above the cutoff for ADHD, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like-experiences. ADHD, depression, and anxiety symptoms were associated with odds ratios of 2.43, 2.47, and 2.06, respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Furthermore, problematic gaming was stable over time, and problematic gaming at the first wave was associated with problem gambling three years later.

It is important to screen for possible co-occurring symptoms among those who seek treatment and among those who appear to have symptoms of gaming, gambling, or psychiatric symptoms. Ongoing evaluation of adequate screening and diagnostic measurements, and the development and evaluation of treatments for problematic gaming, gaming addiction, and comorbid conditions are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1268
Keyword
Adolescent, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, gambling, gaming, psychometrics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304046 (URN)978-91-554-9730-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2016-11-28

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Vadlin, SofiaÅslund, CeciliaNilsson, Kent W.

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