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Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2015 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 4, 263-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time.

Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives.

Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 120, no 4, 263-275 p.
Keyword [en]
Adolescent; computer games; depression; health; musculoskeletal symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261153DOI: 10.3109/03009734.2015.1049724ISI: 000365684900006PubMedID: 26072677OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261153DiVA: diva2:849740
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together.

The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online gaming motives. Gaming for fun and social motives was associated with a reduced risk of negative social consequences, whereas gaming to escape problems, gain status, or meet demands from others was associated with an increased risk.

Increased online gaming time on weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, or psychosomatic symptoms, and was related to online gaming motives. The probability of ill health was low in those who reported gaming for fun or social motives. Adolescents with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were more sensitive to gambling frequency and to developing a gambling problem. However, among those identified as susceptible, adolescents with ADHD were equally affected compared with other susceptible participants in terms of their gambling frequency.

Boys had a higher probability than girls of participating in online gambling in association with online gaming. Having at least one parent born outside Scandinavia was associated with a higher probability of online gambling, especially among girls. The effect of alcohol use as a factor contributing to online gambling was greater among boys than among girls.

The results of this thesis contribute new knowledge about sex differences in online gaming and gambling behaviours and add to the limited research on online gaming and online gambling behaviours among adolescent girls. Gaming motives may be helpful for identifying online gamers needing support to reduce their unhealthy gaming behaviour. Information about factors related to gaming and gambling problems may be of interest to clinicians in psychiatry, psychology and social work, as well as to policymakers, parents and teachers involved in adolescent health and development. Effect preventive strategies should consider the sex differences in gaming and gambling behaviour in adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1131
Keyword
Adolescents, Depression, Gambling, Gaming, Health, Musculoskeletal symptoms, Negative social consequences, Psychosomatic Symptoms.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261156 (URN)978-91-554-9316-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Samlingssalen Ingång 29, Västmanlands sjukhus, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2015-10-01

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Hellström, CharlottaNilsson, KentLeppert, JerzyÅslund, Cecilia

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