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Interleukin-35 administration counteracts established murine type 1 diabetes - possible involvement of regulatory T cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
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2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, 12633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-35 is produced by regulatory T (Treg) cells to suppress autoimmune and inflammatory responses. The role of IL-35 in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains to be answered. To elucidate this, we investigated the kinetics of Treg cell response in the multiple low dose streptozotocin induced (MLDSTZ) T1D model and measured the levels of IL-35 in human T1D patients. We found that Treg cells were increased in MLDSTZ mice. However, the Treg cells showed a decreased production of anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-35, TGF-beta) and increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-17) cytokines, indicating a phenotypic shift of Treg cells under T1D condition. IL-35 administration effectively both prevented development of, and counteracted established MLDSTZ T1D, seemingly by induction of Eos expression and IL-35 production in Treg cells, thus reversing the phenotypic shift of the Treg cells. IL-35 administration reversed established hyperglycemia in NOD mouse model of T1D. Moreover, circulating IL-35 levels were decreased in human T1D patients compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that insufficient IL-35 levels play a pivotal role in the development of T1D and that treatment with IL-35 should be investigated in treatment of T1D and other autoimmune diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 5, 12633
National Category
Cell Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261297DOI: 10.1038/srep12633ISI: 000358867000001PubMedID: 26224624OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261297DiVA: diva2:851174
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Diabetes AssociationNovo NordiskSwedish Child Diabetes Foundation
Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes: the role of IL-35 in counteracting the disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes: the role of IL-35 in counteracting the disease
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is etiologically considered as an autoimmune disease, where insulin-producing β-cells are damaged by autoimmune attacks. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are immune homeostasis cells. In the present thesis I aimed to investigate the role of Treg cells and other immune cells in the early development of T1D. In order to do that, we first determined which immune cells that are altered at an early stage of the T1D development. We found that dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce the initial immune response.

Next, we investigated the role of Treg cells in multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) induced T1D and in NOD mice. We found that the numbers of Treg cells were increased in both MLDSTZ and NOD mice when the MLDSTZ mice were hyperglycemic. However, the increased Treg cells showed a decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-β) and an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17a). These results revealed that Treg cells switch their phenotype under T1D conditions.

IL-35 administration effectively prevented the development of, and reversed established MLDSTZ induced T1D. Treg cells from IL-35 treated mice showed an increased expression of the Eos transcription factor, accompanied by an increased expression of IL-35 and a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL-17a. These data indicate that IL-35 administration counteracted the early development of T1D by maintaining the phenotype of the Treg cells. Furthermore, IL-35 administration reversed established T1D in the NOD mouse model by maintaining the phenotype of Treg cells, seemingly by inducing the expression of Eos. Moreover, the circulating level of IL-35 was significantly lowered in both new onset and long-standing T1D patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, patients with T1D with remaining C-peptide had significantly higher levels of IL-35 than patients lacking C-peptide, suggesting that IL-35 might prevent the loss of β-cell mass. In line with this hypothesis, we found that LADA patients had a higher proportion of IL-35+ tolerogenic antigen presenting cells than T1D patients.

Subsequently, we determined the proportions of IL-35+ Treg cells and IL-17a+ Treg cells in T1D patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), which were age, sex and BMI matched with healthy controls and T1D patients. The proportion of IL-35+ Treg cells was decreased in DN and T1D patients, but IL-17a+ Treg cells were more abundant than in healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that the number of Foxp3+ Treg cells was increased in the kidneys of MLDSTZ mice. However, infiltration of mononuclear cells was seen in kidneys of these mice. In addition, kidney tissues of IL-35 treated MLDSTZ mice did not show any mononuclear cell infiltration. These results demonstrate that IL-35 may be used to prevent mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney diseases.

Our findings indicate that the numbers of Foxp3+ Treg cells are increased in T1D, but that these Treg cells fail to counteract the ongoing immune assault in islets and kidneys of hyperglycemic mice. This could be explained by a phenotypic shift of the Treg cells under hyperglycemic conditions. IL-35 administration reversed established T1D in two different animal models of T1D and prevented mononuclear cell infiltration in the kidneys by maintaining the phenotype of Treg cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 51 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1373
Keyword
IL-35, regulatory T cells, type 1 diabetes, LADA, kidney and diabetic nephropathy
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science; Immunology; Endocrinology and Diabetology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329524 (URN)978-91-513-0084-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-14, hall B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2017-10-30

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Singh, KailashHjort, MarcusEspes, DanielCarlsson, Per-OlaSandler, StellanThorvaldson, Lina

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