Developmental neurotoxicity of persistent and non-persistent pollutants: Behavioral and neurochemical assessments of a perfluorinated compound, pesticides and interaction effects
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The focus of this thesis was to investigate developmental neurotoxic effects of different persistent and non-persistent environmental pollutants, alone or in binary mixtures, when exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development, in mice. The compounds investigated included a perfluorinated compound, perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS), and four different pesticides, endosulfan, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl.
Both persistent and non-persistent pollutants are detected in the environment and in humans, which shows that exposure to these compounds is occurring in real life. Humans can therefore be exposed to various pollutants during their whole lifetime, starting from the gestational period to adulthood. Furthermore, exposure to environmental pollutants is rarely exclusive to a single compound, but rather occurs through combinations of various pollutants present in the environment. Exposure to environmental pollutants during human brain development have been suggested to be a possible cause for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown that chemicals can induce irreversible disorders in brain function when exposure to these chemicals occurs during a critical defined period of the brain development known as the brain growth spurt (BGS). The BGS is characterized by a rapid growth and development of the immature brain. In humans, and mice, this period also overlaps the lactation period indicating that newborns and toddlers can be exposed via mothers’ milk as well.
This thesis has shown that a single oral exposure to PFHxS, endosulfan, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos or carbaryl can induce developmental neurotoxic effects in mice, when exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development. These effects are manifested as persistent altered adult spontaneous behavior in a novel home environment, modified habituation, altered susceptibility of the cholinergic system and changed levels of neuroproteins in the mouse brain. Furthermore, a single neonatal co-exposure to a binary mixture of carbaryl/chlorpyrifos or PFHxS/endosulfan can interact and exacerbate the adult behavioral effects. These effects were seen at dosages were the single compound did not elicit a response or induced a much weaker behavioral effect. This indicates that risk assessments conducted on single compounds might underestimate interaction effects of mixtures when co-exposed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 68 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1283
Brain, Neonatal, Mixtures, Cholinergic system, Organochlorines, Pyrethroids, Organophosphates, Carbamates, Insecticides, PFCs, PFAAs, PFHxS, Endosulfan, Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Carbaryl
Research subject Biology with specialization in Environmental Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261742ISBN: 978-91-554-9326-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261742DiVA: diva2:851609
2015-10-23, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Mundy, William, Professor
Viberg, Henrik, DocentEriksson, Per, Professor
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