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Microarray Analysis of Copy Number Variants on the Human Y Chromosome Reveals Novel and Frequent Duplications Overrepresented in Specific Haplogroups
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, e0137223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


The human Y chromosome is almost always excluded from genome-wide investigations of copy number variants (CNVs) due to its highly repetitive structure. This chromosome should not be forgotten, not only for its well-known relevance in male fertility, but also for its involvement in clinical phenotypes such as cancers, heart failure and sex specific effects on brain and behaviour.


We analysed Y chromosome data from Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and found that the signal intensities for most of 8179 SNP/CN probes in the male specific region (MSY) discriminated between a male, background signals in a female and an isodicentric male containing a large deletion of the q-arm and a duplication of the p-arm of the Y chromosome. Therefore, this SNP/CN platform is suitable for identification of gain and loss of Y chromosome sequences. In a set of 1718 males, we found 25 different CNV patterns, many of which are novel. We confirmed some of these variants by PCR or qPCR. The total frequency of individuals with CNVs was 14.7%, including 9.5% with duplications, 4.5% with deletions and 0.7% exhibiting both. Hence, a novel observation is that the frequency of duplications was more than twice the frequency of deletions. Another striking result was that 10 of the 25 detected variants were significantly overrepresented in one or more haplogroups, demonstrating the importance to control for haplogroups in genome-wide investigations to avoid stratification. NO-M214(xM175) individuals presented the highest percentage (95%) of CNVs. If they were not counted, 12.4% of the rest included CNVs, and the difference between duplications (8.9%) and deletions (2.8%) was even larger.


Our results demonstrate that currently available genome-wide SNP platforms can be used to identify duplications and deletions in the human Y chromosome. Future association studies of the full spectrum of Y chromosome variants will demonstrate the potential involvement of gain or loss of Y chromosome sequence in different human phenotypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 10, no 8, e0137223
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261976DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137223ISI: 000360435500068PubMedID: 26322892OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261976DiVA: diva2:851660
Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Human Y chromosome and its role in the developing male nervous system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Y chromosome and its role in the developing male nervous system
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent research demonstrated that besides a role in sex determination and male fertility, the Y chromosome is involved in additional functions including prostate cancer, sex-specific effects on the brain and behaviour, graft-versus-host disease, nociception, aggression and autoimmune diseases. The results presented in this thesis include an analysis of sex-biased genes encoded on the X and Y chromosomes of rodents. Expression data from six different somatic tissues was analyzed and we found that the X chromosome is enriched in female biased genes and depleted of male biased ones. The second study described copy number variation (CNV) patterns in a world-wide collection of human Y chromosome samples. Contrary to expectations, duplications and not deletions were the most frequent variations. We also discovered novel CNV patterns of which some were significantly overrepresented in specific haplogroups. A substantial part of the thesis focuses on analysis of spatial expression of two Y-encoded brain-specific genes, namely PCDH11Y and NLGN4Y. The perhaps most surprising discovery was the observation that X and Y transcripts of both gene pairs are mostly expressed in different cells in human spinal cord and medulla oblongata. Also, we detected spatial expression differences for the PCDH11X gene in spinal cord. The main focus of the spatial investigations was to uncover genetically coded sexual differences in expression during early development of human central nervous system (CNS). Also, investigations of the expression profiles for 13 X and Y homolog gene pairs in human CNS, adult brain, testes and still-born chimpanzee brain samples were included. Contrary to previous studies, we found only three X-encoded genes from the 13 X/Y homologous gene pairs studied that exhibit female-bias. We also describe six novel non-coding RNAs encoded in the human MSY, some of which are polyadenylated and with conserved expression in chimpanzee brain. The description of dimorphic cellular expression patterns of X- and Y-linked genes should boost the interest in the human specific gene PCDH11Y, and draw attention to other Y-encoded genes expressed in the brain during development. This may help to elucidate the role of the Y chromosome in sex differences during early CNS development in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 63 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1285
MSY, sex differences, CNV, SNP, palindrome, palindromes, gr/gr duplication, gr/gr deletion, b2/b3 deletion, b2/b3 duplication, blue-grey duplication, blue-grey like duplication, IR2, U3, STS, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc, Olivary nucleus, Medulla oblongata, spinal cord, white matter, Affymetrix 6.0, embryo, embryonal, haplogroup, haplogroups, R1a, R1b, R-M207, E-M96, I-M170, J-M304, G-M201, Ashkenazi, Bolivian, Chinese, SNP array, padlock probing, AMY-tree
National Category
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Development
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261789 (URN)978-91-554-9331-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-23, Zootissalen (EBC 01.01006), Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Swedish Research Council, K2012-61X-22089-01-3

chinese, finnish, norwegian, schizophrenia, bipolar, bipolar disorder, msy, male specific region Y, PAR1, PAR2, pseudoautosomal, male-biased, female-biased, male biased, female biased, ashkenazi population, structure, variants, YHRD, Elena Jazin, Björn Reinius, Per Ahlberg, brain, hjärna, CNS, central nervous system, IR2, inverted repeat 2, isodicentric, genetics, genetik, padlock, rolling circle, amplification, PCR, sY1191, sY1291, STS, DDX3Y, DAZ, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc, AZF, Repping, haplogroup J, rearrangements, DE-M145, I-M170, E-M96, Q-M242, R-M207, O-M175, G-M201, D-M174, C-M130, NO-M214, N-M231, poland

Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-09-04 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved

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