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Surface Chemistry of Nanocellulose Fibers Directs Monocyte/Macrophage Response
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanoteknologi och funktionella material)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanotechnology and Functional Materials)
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2015 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 9, 2787-2795 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on monocyte/macrophage (MM) behavior is investigated to understand how the physicochemical properties of nanocelluloses influence the interactions of such materials with biological systems. Films of anionic (a-), cationic (c-), and unmodified (u-) NFC were synthesized and characterized in terms of surface charge. THP-1 monocytes were cultured on the surface of the films for 24 h in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide, and the cell response was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, morphology, and secretion of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-1ra. The results show that MMs cultured on carboxymethylated-NFC films (a-NFC) are activated toward a proinflammatory phenotype, whereas u-NFC promotes a mild activation of the studied cells. The presence of hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium groups on c-NFC, however, does not promote the activation of MMs, indicating that c-NFC closely behaves as an inert material in terms of MM activation. None of the materials is able to directly activate the MMs toward an anti-inflammatory response. These results may provide a foundation for the design of future NFC-based materials with the ability to control MM activation and may expand the use of NFC in biomedical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 16, no 9, 2787-2795 p.
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264140DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00727ISI: 000361341700025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-264140DiVA: diva2:859153
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanocellulose for Biomedical Applications: Modification, Characterisation and Biocompatibility Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose for Biomedical Applications: Modification, Characterisation and Biocompatibility Studies
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the past decade there has been increasing interest in exploring the use of nanocellulose in medicine. However, the influence of the physicochemical properties of nanocellulose on the material´s biocompatibility has not been fully investigated. 

In this thesis, thin films of nanocellulose from wood (NFC) and from Cladophora algae (CC) were modified by the addition of charged groups on their surfaces and the influence of these modifications on the material´s physicochemical properties and on cell responses in vitro was studied.

The results indicate that the introduction of charged groups on the surface of NFC and CC results in films with decreased surface area, smaller average pore size and a more compact structure compared with the films of unmodified nanocelluloses. Furthermore, the fibres in the carboxyl-modified CC films were uniquely aggregated and aligned, a state which tended to become more prevalent with increased surface-group density.

The biocompatibility studies showed that NFC films containing hydroxypropyltrime-thylammonium (HPTMA) groups presented a more cytocompatible surface than unmodified NFC and carboxymethylated NFC regarding human dermal fibroblasts. Carboxymethyl groups resulted in NFC films that promoted inflammation, while HPTMA groups had a passivating effect in terms of inflammatory response. 

On the other hand, both modified CC films behaved as inert materials in terms of the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages and, under pro-inflammatory stimuli, they suppressed secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, with the effects of the carboxylated CC film more pronounced than those of the HPTMA CC material. 

Carboxyl CC films showed good cytocompatibility with fibroblasts and osteoblastic cells. However, it was necessary to reach a threshold value in carboxyl-group density to obtain CC films with cytocompatibility comparable to that of commercial tissue culture material. 

The studies presented here highlight the ability of the nanocellulose films to modulate cell behaviour and provide a foundation for the design of nanocellulose-based materials that trigger specific cell responses. The bioactivity of nanocellulose may be optimized by careful tuning of the surface properties.

The outcomes of this thesis are foreseen to contribute to our fundamental understanding of the biointerface phenomena between cells and nanocellulose as well as to enable engineering of bioinert, bioactive, and bioadaptive materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1320
Keyword
Nanocellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose, Cladophora cellulose, biocompatibility, inflammation, surface modification, surface group density, surface topography
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267301 (URN)978-91-554-9416-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-27, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2016-01-13

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Publisher's full texthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00727

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Hua, KaiMihranyan, AlbertStrömme, MariaFerraz, Natalia

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