Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis in Zebrafish
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Proteoglycans (PGs) are composed of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans chains (GAGs) attached to specific core proteins. They are present in extracellular matrices, on the cell surface and in storage granules of hematopoietic cells. Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) GAGs play indispensable roles in a wide range of biological processes, where they can serve as protein carriers, be involved in growth factor or morphogen gradient formation and act as co-receptors in signaling processes. Protein binding abilities of GAGs are believed to be predominantly dependent on the arrangement of the sugar modifications, sulfation and epimerization, into specific oligosaccharide sequences. Although the process of HS and CS/DS assembly and modification is not fully understood, a set of GAG biosynthetic enzymes have been fairly well studied and several mutations in genes encoding for this Golgi machinery have been linked to human genetic disorders.
This thesis focuses on the zebrafish N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene family, encoding key enzymes in HS chain modification, as well as glycosyltransferases responsible for chondroitin/dermatan sulfate elongation present in zebrafish. Our data illustrates the strict spatio-temporal expression of both the NDST enzymes (Paper I) and CS/DS glycosyltransferases (Paper II) in the developing zebrafish embryo. In Paper III we took advantage of the four preexisting zebrafish mutants with defective GAG biosynthesis. We could demonstrate a relation between HS content and the severity of the pectoral fin defects, and additionally correlate impaired HS biosynthesis with altered chondrocyte intercalation. Interestingly, altered CS biosynthesis resulted in loss of the chondrocyte extracellular matrix. One of the main findings was the demonstration of the ratio between the HS biosynthesis enzyme Extl3 and the Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins, as a main factor influencing the HS/CS ratio. In Paper IV we used the newly developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique to create a collection of zebrafish mutants with defective GAG biosynthetic machineries. Lack of phenotypes linked to null-mutations of most of the investigated genes is striking in this study.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 54 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1143
Heparan sulfate, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, biosynthesis, development, N-deacetylase N-sulfotransferase, glycosyltransferases, morpholino, CRISPR-Cas9
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Developmental Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264269ISBN: 978-91-554-9368-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-264269DiVA: diva2:859704
2015-11-27, C8:305, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Grobe, Kay, Associate Professor
Kjellén, Lena, ProfessorLedin, Johan, Researcher
List of papers