Transfer of developmental neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to nursed offspring: Studies by mass spectrometry and image analysis
2016 (English)In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 258, 108-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The cyanobacterial non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is proposed to be involved in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex. When administered as single doses to neonatal rats, BMAA gives rise to cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments in the adult animal. Here, we employed mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and autoradiographic imaging to examine the mother-to-pup transfer of BMAA in rats. The results show that unchanged BMAA was secreted into the milk and distributed to the suckling pups. The concentration of BMAA in pup stomach milk and the neonatal liver peaked after 8 h, while the concentration in the pup brain increased throughout the study period. About 1 and 6% of the BMAA recovered from adult liver and brain were released following hydrolysis, suggesting that this fraction was associated with protein. No association to milk protein was observed. Injection of rat pups with [methyl-C-14]-L-BMAA or [carboxyl-C-14]-L-BMAA resulted in highly similar distribution patterns, indicating no or low metabolic elimination of the methylamino- or carboxyl groups. In conclusion, BMAA is transported as a free amino acid to rat milk and suckling pups. The results strengthen the proposal that mothers' milk could be a source of exposure for BMAA in human infants. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 258, 108-114 p.
BMAA; Cyanobacterial neurotoxin, kinetics; Milk secretion; Developmental neurotoxicity; Mother-to-offspring transfer
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265847DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.06.015ISI: 000381648300012PubMedID: 27320960OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-265847DiVA: diva2:866692
ProjectsMilk, secretion, BMAA, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, autoradiography, mass spectrometry
FunderSwedish Research Council Formas